Today's fluorescent lighting can reach lux. To attract travelers, the Nord-Sud Company , which built what is now line 12 line A, Porte de Versailles to Porte de la Chapelle and part of the northern section of what is now line 13 line B, Saint-Lazare to Porte de Clichy and Porte de Saint-Ouen chose a more elaborate decorative scheme for the interior of its stations than that of the CMP. Most of the tile was the familiar white beveled type, but the white tile was complemented by arches of colored tile over the vault and garland-like swags on the walls.
This complementary tiling was color-coordinated: brown for normal stations, green for terminal and transfer stations, and pale blue for the station Madeleine the reason for this station's particular color scheme has never been fully explained. The most impressive feature of the Nord-Sud stations were the station names themselves, executed in large tile mosaics with white letters on a blue background.
Blue and white tiling above the two tunnel entrances also indicated the destination of the trains for example, "Dir. Montmartre" on line As the RATP renovates these stations, it has generally removed the original tilework and installed replicas. The CMP rolled out its final chosen design in in three newly built line 3 now 3bis stations from Gambetta to Porte des Lilas.
Primarily, the CMP borrowed the Nord-Sud's idea of station names executed in blue and white earthenware tiles.
The CMP also tiled its poster frames with more elaborately decorated borders of honey or ochre-colored faience, featuring floral and organic motifs. On 21 March , when the RATP in charge of transportation within Paris was created, the modernization of the network had become a necessity. These consisted of renovating stations by applying sheaths of metal paneling known as carrossage along the sides of the stations, hiding the aging tilework.
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This proved to be cheaper than refurbishing the tile and increased the amount of space available for advertising posters whose revenues contributed to financing the renovation. Franklin D Roosevelt on line 9 received the first paneling makeover in , to be followed by five other stations between and , each featuring slightly different prototypes: Saint-Paul and Franklin D. The standard style eventually adopted throughout the network featured light yellow paneling with forest green accents, complemented by brown and yellow enamel station nameplates.
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Between and approximately 70 stations were paneled in this style. All but seven stations on lines 12 and 13 received the carrossage makeovers, with line 12 the most extensively remodeled line on the network. But paneling had serious drawbacks that quickly became apparent. It used space on the platforms, making stations feel more cramped, and it rendered maintenance of the underlying tilework difficult.
As of , a few carrossage stations remain on lines 3, 4 and 12, and all are scheduled for replacement in the next few years. Tiling made its return in the late s, with the renovation style known as Mouton-Duvernet this station on line 4 being the first concerned. The style's signature was the warm and dynamic colour orange, in variegated shades. Flat non-bevelled orange tiles covered the station walls but not the roof, which was simply painted in a neutral and often dark tone.
The fluorescent-light housing, placed over the train tracks, was rectilinear and coloured in matching orange. The Mouton-Duvernet aesthetic was intended to lend warmth and colour to hitherto plain station interiors. It was also self-consciously modern, a product of its iconoclastic era. However, the orange tones were quickly perceived as garish and aggressive, and the overall aesthetic as rather gloomy because the vault remained in shadow and the orange tiles did not reflect light as well as the white.
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Where the existing beveled tile was in good repair, the Andreu-Motte style was applied over the original tile, but in stations where more extensive tile replacement was called for, the beveled tiling was replaced by flat white rectangular tiles. To introduce color into the stations, a coordinated colour scheme was added to elements of the train hall — the seating, light housings, and walls of connecting corridors. Five main colour schemes were used: yellow, red, green, blue and orange.
An aim was to facilitate subliminal recognition of stations by passengers, since particular stations took on colour identities — for example, Ledru-Rollin is blue and Voltaire yellow.
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The other innovation was a tiled ledge along the base of the station wall, in the station's signature colour. Beginning with Stalingrad line 7 in , around 30 stations were decorated in this style. Its hidden upper side projected light through colored filters directly onto the ceiling of the vault, illuminating it in a rainbow of multiple colors. The style initially featured distinctive seating complemented by high, "sit-lean" benches, but these fixtures proved difficult and costly to maintain and in many cases were replaced by standard Motte-style seating in the s.
As with the Motte renovations, three distinct color schemes red, yellow and green were put into place, with each station's chairs, light fixtures, and poster frames built in matching colors, but the effect was more subtle than the use of color in the Motte stations. In the s, over years of exposure to the ultraviolet fluorescent light, the colored refractory panels progressively lost their color, and the RATP judged it too expensive to regularly replace the panels to maintain the colored light directed onto the vaults. Following the logic of the stations' capacious volumes, the RATP opted for minimalism , with an emphasis on space, light and modernity.
Specifically, the stations should represent "a noble public space, monumental in spirit, urbane in its choice of shapes and materials. In practical terms, this meant a diversity of materials. Walls are panelled in steel, stone and frosted glass, while platform floors are marbelled.
Elsewhere, the dominant surface is polished bare concrete. In Saint-Augustin on line 9 was chosen as the trial station for a new renovation style. Its original feature is a new light housing known as the Bruno-Gaudin light fixture with a wide wave-shaped reflecting surface which is attached to and follows the curve of the vault, hides the bare fluorescent bulbs seen throughout the metro after World War II, and also hides cables efficiently.
The style, which focuses on maximizing the amount of light in the stations and hiding unsightly fixtures, also returns to the classic beveled white tile, which reflects light better than all other types that have been used on the system.
The style has also seen the introduction of a new type of seating: a curved, rounded, individual seat called the coque , or shell model, after its distinctive shape. The style also lends itself to both minor and major renovation schemes.
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In stations that have the beveled tile already, renovation in Bruno-Gaudin style is fairly straightforward; other stations have been entirely retiled in the classic white tile to bring them into conformity with this style. In some stations, the Bruno-Gaudin wave light fixture cannot be used due to the particularities of the vault or, in the case of stations with Nord-Sud decor, because it would obscure particular decorative features. For these cases, the RATP has developed a secondary type of lighting fixture consisting of a long, compact tube of extremely luminescent fluorescent light that is suspended from the ceiling of the vault, over the train tracks, rather than being attached to the walls of the vault itself.
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This light fixture has the benefit of being equally bright as the Gaudin model, but is very discreet, and allows the RATP to work around the particularities of many stations. This charter supersedes many previous renovation styles, notably the carrossage and Mouton-Duvernet renovations, but does retain Motte and Oui-dire stations in good repair. When the first sections of the metro opened in the early 20th century, most station names in CMP stations were indicated by enameled signs hung from the ceiling and later mounted on the walls.
The signs featured white, narrow, sans-serif uppercase letters set against a dark blue background. Despite the CMP's later decision to equip future stations with tiled nameplates, the enamel plaques in place survived well into the postwar period, with the last example, at La Motte-Picquet — Grenelle on line 6, only retired in Stations that were modernized in the carossage style of the s and s received new station signage.
Breaking with the blue-and-white used for both tile and enamel nameplates until that time, the nameplates installed in carossage stations featured bright yellow, uppercase, sans-serif letters on a dark brown background, which proved to be more difficult to read from inside the trains. In the early s, spurred on by the development of the RER system and by the opening of several new extensions to the network, the RATP undertook a program to harmonize the metro's corporate identity by replacing the many different fonts then in use with a unified, standard typeface.
By the early s, the RATP had decided to update its signage, and selected a variant of the widespread Helvetica typefice, Neue Helvetica, for use in stations and on maps. Porchez's font, called Parisine because it was initially used for the station signs, was first introduced in Since then, it has been adopted throughout the system and has increasingly replaced the remaining Frutiger signage.
Until the reconstruction of the Louvre in the late s, this station was the closest to the museum's entrance. When I. As part of the change, Louvre station took on the name Louvre — Rivoli. Individual bookings may be cancelled free of charge until 2 PM on the day of arrival. Late cancellations are subject to charge of one night accommodation. Latitude: In a semi-pedestrian street in the heart of Paris, 50 meters from the Metro Cadet and 7 different bus routes. Toggle the navigation Paris Instant Booking. Remember me. Forgot your password? Submit the email address associated with your account, and we'll email you instructions for resetting your password.
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