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The monk was supposed to try to get by with the barest of necessities. By begging for his food and by frequently making himself present among the townsfolk, he was to intentionally put himself to shame and humiliation. By doing this, the monk essentially aimed at ridding himself of all of the feelings and longings which could hinder his enlightenment and perfection. Perhaps the most definitive trait of the early Ch'iian-chen sect was this stress on asceticism.

The quest for Perfected Man status ,as carried out by the Ch'iian-chen masters, was an intense procees of survival and perseverance. Also, from the standpoint of those who came to believe in the Ch'uan-chen way of Taoism, it was often this capacity of the Ch'iian-chen masters to overcome extreme ascetic ordeals which gave them their credibility as extraordinary religious men. Later chapters will deal in detail with the theories and methods of Perfection Cultivation and with how the believers came to view the Perfected Men as merciful saviours, miracle workers, and efficacious ritual performers.

In this chapter I will try to give the reader an idea of the extent of self denial, trouble, misery and danger that the Ch'iian-chen masters put themselves through out of their sincere faith in the attainability of Immortal-hood. In undergoing this discussion there are certain different kinds of aspects of their asceticism that need to be discussed. First of all, there is the ideal of "pure poverty" which the monk was to abide by throughout his entire life. After discussing this ideal, I 39 will move on to discussing the practice of begging and its significance.

While "pure poverty" and begging pervaded the entire life of the Ch'iian-chen monk, his life also included a period of several years in which he had to undergo various severe physical and psychological ordeals. I will discuss how a monk had to maintain complete control of his physical and emotional urges and had to become completely free of anger or fear towards anything. We will see that the ascetic practices of the Ch'iian-chen masters were regarded by them as both a process of elimination of karma and a process of accumulation of merit points recorded within the heavenly bureacracy.

Ultimately, I would like the reader to appreciate how asceticism was seen by the Ch'iian-chen masters as the cornerstone of proper Perfection Cultivation and how they acted fully upon this conviction. A good example of what is meant by "pure poverty" can be seen in the following description of the lifestyle of Ma Tan-yang in Tan-yang Chen-jen The Collected Sayings of Perfected Man Tan-yang : TYL : The master resided in a shack furnished only with a desk, a long couch, a brush, an ink tablet and a sheepskin. It was emty without any extraneous objects.

In the early morning he ate one small bowl of rice gruel and at noon ate one large bowl of noodles. Beyond this gruel, noodles , never did fruits or spicy vegetables go through his mouth. Poverty is the foundation of nurturing life. If hungry, eat one bowl of rice gruel. If you become sleepy, spread out a grass mat. Pass the days and nights in tattered garments. Such is truly the lifestyle of a person of 40 the Tao. Therefore you must understand that the single matter of pure immaculateness cannot be acquired by the wealthy.

I will be showing clearly in the next chapter that these two benefits were in fact regarded as completely interrelated. But as we will again be seeing in the next chapter, the term can also have definite physiological implications as it perhaps has here. Liu Ch'ang-sheng, as a reason why his sect laid such importance on maintaining an ascetic lifestyle, pointed to the fact that the great enlightened men of old times were ascetics: "Accomplished men of old, wanting to distance themselves from the dreams and rnirages the impermanent and illusory world , took on the outer appearances of fools.

The Confucian Yen one of Confucius's best disciples was pure and poor and [owned only ] a rice bucket and a drinking gourd. The Buddhist Sakya the historical Buddha, Gautama Siddhartha begged for food and took one meal [per day] by [begging from] seven [different] households. The Taoist [Lu] Ch'un-yang was non-active. He lived like a quail had no permanent home and ate like a baby bird, ate only what was given to him without complaint like a baby bird receives the food given to it by its mother.

It can be said that this lore involving Lii, and the cult of "Golden Elixir" internal alchemy and patriarch worship that was connected with it probably formed the most important background tradition of the Ch'iian-chen sect. Throughout the various stories compiled in MTC, Lii wanders about various regions of China as a sloppy looking beggar, performing miracles and bringing salvation to people who are ready to open their hearts to him.

As we will see in later chapters, the Ch'iian-chen masters sought to become able to perform as miracle workers and saviours, and in fact eventually claimed that they had become able to do so. As has been well documented by modern scholarship, the Ch'iian-chen masters taught that Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism were ultimately the same religion; three different expressions of the ultimate and only reality, the Tao.

This basic attitude is clearly apparent here as Liu also points to Yen Hui a famous disciple of Confucius and the historical Buddha as examples of great ascetics who can serve as role models for Ch'iian-chen monks. For a newly initiated monk, begging was an extremely difficult activity to adjust to. The adjustment that had to be made was primarily mental, as there was a large amount of humiliation involved in appearing in the midst of the townsfolk as a beggar.

Liu served under the Liao Dynasty6. One morning he realized the Tao. Thereby he cut off his family connections. His poetry includes the words, 'I abandoned and left the people of my household fires domestic life and its attachments. I abandoned my personal troops which numbered one million. Wherever he came to an open area he put on a playful performance acted in an eccentric manner when in the presence of other people? He got to the point where he would go into brothels carrying barrels of liquor. He did not feel any embarrassment.

Begging was just one of the ways in which he intentionally put himself to shame so that he could train himself to be able to shed any kind of self conscious feeling of embarrassment. Thus not only did he beg, but he acted like an insane person and associated unashamedly with the more unsavory elements of society. It existed from But in the case of Ma, this ability to shed all feelings of shame and embarrassment seems to have developed with much more difficulty.

UBC Theses and Dissertations

As we can see from the following passage from TYL, Ma had an extremely difficult time adjusting himself to the humiliation of begging: "The Patriarch-Master8 Wang Ch'ung-yang one time ordered his disciples to go to Ning-hai and beg for grain, coins and rice. I wanted to have another disciple go for me [and thus said], 'Make another older or younger brother [of mine] fellow disciple go.

The Patriarch-Master became furious and beat me continously until dawn. Because of the many blows that I received, I had a regressing heart, and I left him. But Master-Brother Ch'iu [Ch-ang-ch'un] urged me into staying. Till this day, neither of us has forgotten [this incident]. Although there is no evidence that he ever resorted to violence like his master frequently did, Ma himself eventually seems to have had to frequently cope with disciples who were reluctant to beg, after he took over the sect's leadership when Wang died.

I asked him what his name was. He said,'I am the Crazy Man Shih. I am also a disciple of the school of Perfected Man Ch'ung-yang' I had already sensed that this man was afraid of going into the streets and begging. Therefore I took him around with me. I 8A respectful term used mostly to refer to founder Wang Ch'ung-yang or his putative Immortal teachers such as Lii-Ch'un-yang.

The master [of the saloon] hesitated to serve us perhaps because of their appearance. Shih took some money out from his bosom. I said, Do not use this money. You must go into the streets and beg for the money to buy the liquor. Shih stared [at me] and and after a while finally went into the streets to beg. He returned with some liquor. I drank it [all] by myself.

This lifestyle of "pure poverty" maintained primarily through begging had to be carried out as a life-long commitment. However, the quest for Perfected Man status that the Ch'uan-chen masters underwent and expounded involved much more than just this. In order to become Perfected Men, and to prove to themselves and others that they had indeed succeeded in doing so, they had to toil and suffer in ways that exceeded the normal human capacity.

The word, "suffering" is discussed as follows by Liu Ch'ang-sheng: "To suffer means to suffer with the mind and body. The confused people of the world make themselves suffer by coveting life and entering into the road of death. Straining their minds they use their cleverness and thus their [innate] nature sinks into the land of punishments.

One who understands the Tao makes himself suffer by training his body. In other words it is like shattering a rock to take out a piece of jade. Straining his will power he forgets cleverness and therefore his nature ascends the Nine Empyreans Taoist heavens. The wise find enjoyment in the midst of suffering.

The foolish suffer in the midst of enjoyment. For the wise, bitterness ends and sweetness arrrives. CYC chuan 1 pp. Because the most vital and profound truths are beyond the comprehension of most people, a Buddhist Bodhisattva or a Taoist Perfected Man had to use "skillful means" to adeptly coax ignorant people towards goodness and progressively better understanding 4 5 they are sad.

A scripture13 says, 'Blessings are born from difficulties and difficulties are born from blessings. Rather than resorting to the clever conniving aimed at obtaining the things that most people enjoy in life, they preferred to abandon all such worldly pursuits and to suffer at the lowest levels of poverty, because they maintained that the proper cultivation of mind and body could not be carried out otherwise. As we will see in detail in the next chapter, the Immortal-hood sought by Ch'iian-chen and related Taoist sects was an emancipation from the mortal body and a spiritual ascension into the high heavens beyond the realm of suffering and re-birth.

Yet, the quest for Immortal-hood that the Ch'iian-chen masters engaged in was a process of training and strengthening the body as well as the mind. Herein lies an important difference between ascetic monasticism in Ch'iian-chen Taoism and similar sects and that in Buddhism. The Buddha, after trying out various ways of seeking out the solution to the problem of human suffering including extreme asceticism, arrived at the conclusion that the enlightenment of mind which brings emancipation from samsara the cycle of re-incarnation must be sought through the "middle path", an approach which maintains a happy middle ground between self-denial and comfort.

The Ch'iian-chen masters, on the other hand, seem to have felt that the stage of the utmost extreme asceticism was a necessary step that had to be taken. There are passages among their writings which advocate the "middle path" approach to cultivation,which modern scholarship has cited as examples of the syncretic nature of the Ch'iian-chen sect. As is evidenced by the above passage and by the teachings and doings of the Ch'uan-chen masters that I will be citing in the ensuing pages, it was definitely required that one test the limits of his mind and body through extreme ascetic practices.

In order for the "rock" the mortal body to be shattered and the "piece of jade" Immortal-hood to be obtained, one was required to suffer through harsh physical training. The quest for Perfection or Immortal-hood was understood as a process in which points tabulated by certain gods in the heavenly bureaucracy for "merit"J and "deeds" 4"T had to be earned. Through a diligent accumulation of these points, it was hoped that an Immortal such as Lii Ch'un-yang or Liu Hai-ch'an would be moved to come to the aid and instruction of the monk, and that as result of further cultivation based on the contents of the Immortal's instruction, the monk could eventually be summoned to join the Immortal ranks.

This aspect of the faith which sought the aid and instruction of the merciful Immortals will be discussed in detail in Chapter Three. The number of points required for Immortal-hood was believed to be merit points and deeds points. Chin Chen-jen Yu-lu The Recorded Sayings of Perfected Man Chin 1 5 defines merit and deeds as follows: "If you want [to accumulate] true merit you should clear your mind, stabilize your will, and control your vital spirit. Without motion and without action, truly pure and truly still; embrace your origin and preserve the One, visualize your spirit and solidify your ch'i the solid, liquid, gaseous and formless components which make up the body.

This is [the meaning of] true merit. If you want [to accumulate] true deeds, you should cultivate your behavior and pile up virtuous acts. Help the poor and relieve those 15This book is a bit of a mystery. I have never been able to figure out who this "Perfected Man Chin" was. Perhaps he was a prominent Taoist monk at Mt. The book is made up of a long sermon by Perfected Man Chin from which the above quote is taken which is followed by a series of poems and exhortations by Wang Ch'ung-yang.

If you see the tribulations of others, always be willing to help and rescue. Also, evangelize to good people so that they will enter the Way and train themselves. In whatever you do, put others first and yourself last. In dealing with the myriad objects, keep nothing for yourself.

This is [the meaning of] true deeds. Deeds refer to good deeds of charity and evangelism. If you do not strain your will power and have a determined heart, it is difficult to transcend ordinariness and enter into sacredness. To use your strength to perform a great amount of tiresome labor for the sect, to from your heart engage in merit training methods , to completely abandon worldly affairs, to do nothing other than overcoming your self-consciousness and focussing your mind on the Tao; all of these things form the basis of bringing about blessings.

However, the Tao envelops Heaven and Earth and its greatness is hard to measure. Slight goodness and slight merit cannot bring results immediately. Therefore it is said that the enlightenment of the Tao that takes place in an instant must result from training that spans over long kalpas extremely long periods of time. The sudden enlightenment of the single mind must rely of thorough cultivation and myriad deeds. The enlightenment of the Tao that takes place in this life is a result of one's having had merit during previous lives.

Yet, not knowing of the causes from past incarnations and seeing that they have toiled for years without success, [people nowadays] regard [Perfection Cultivation] as hard labor that is but a hoax. Thus they give rise to laziness. What a shame! What they especially fail to understand is that even though their minds are reflecting upon the Tao within all TT : 16p. As time elapses, everybody has their accumulation of hidden merit.

When one's merit is insufficient, then [one's unity with] the Tao is incomplete Even if you have not yet acquired the Tao, if your roots of goodness are deep and solid, support from a holy sage will come to you in this life or the next. One who has no roots of destiny is far [from salvation] indeed! I only regret that the minds of people become regressing and lazy and that therefore the holy sages are unable to deliver and release them.

If you do not backslide during this life, the next life or over the span of many lives, salvation [by the hands of a holy sage] will arrive suddenly, and you will accomplish and master [the Tao]. I did hot have bones of destiny a significant ammount of merit and deeds accumulated from past lives. Even though I have not yet completed [my Perfection Cultivation], the difficulties that I have undergone surpass those of ordinary people.

Ch'iu says clearly that some people are destined towards attaining Immortal-hood during this lifetime and others are not. Also, we can see the element of the faith that relied upon the merciful intervention of the Immortals for ultimate salvation. Such elements of the faith could quite conceivably have functioned to undermine the sect's emphasis on ascetic personal effort. In fact, in the generations succeeding the original masters, it seems as though that may have been what happened. But in the above passage, Ch'iu effectively uses these elements to enhance his exhortation for relentless personal effort.

Because the so-called "bones of destiny" were understood to be a product of diligent personal effort in past lives, Ch'iu maintains that it is essential to work hard and to maintain one's faith in the Tao, even if it only serves to build a foundation for eventual Perfection in the next incarnation or even an incarnation beyond the next. And although the 1 7 Upper chuan ppl lb b. Because Master-Father [Ma] Tan-yang had an extremely great amount of merit and deeds from past lives, the Patriarch-Master always spoke to him about the profound wonders. But because Master-Father Ch'ang-ch'un was still lacking in merit and deeds, he made him perform arduous labor without allowing him to rest for even a moment.

One day, while the Patriarch-Master was discussing a method of breath control19 with Tan-yang behind closed doors, the Master-Father eavesdropped from outside. After a while, he pushed the door open and entered, and [Wang and Ma ] immediately ended their discussion. The Master-Father thought about this and decided that breath control is marvelous and that the arduous labor that he was doing contradicted it completely. Thus after this, whenever he could find time, he forcefully practiced the method that he had overheard.

The time of return death of the Patriarch-Master was imminent. Therefore during the three years [that Ch'iu trained under him], he trained the four masters Ma, Ch'iu, T'an Ch'ang-chen and Liu Ch'ang-sheng with ever increasing harshness. The work of each day was equivalent to that of hundreds and thousands of days in the past. As the seasons changed, his demands became more and more unreasonable and nothing could gain his approval. Nothing which they said or did ever went without blame and reprimand.

The Master Father Ch'iu silently thought to himself, 'Since the time that I began to follow the Master I have been unable to understand what the Tao is. Everything that he has taught me or made me do has not had anything to do with this matter the Tao. He wanted to obediently practice what he had been told but his desire to seek the Tao was urgent and he could not stabilize his will.

Thus when his frustration came to a climax he gathered up the courage to ask. The Patriarch-Master answered, 'It is upon your nature', and said nothing more. The Master-Father did not dare to ask anything more. The room was very small.

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He made Tan-yang and Ch'ang-chen stand inside the room. The heat was unbearable. He made Ch'ang-sheng and Ch'ang-ch'un stand outside. The coldness was unbearable. He did not allow those inside to go outside and those outside to come inside. After a long time, Master-Father Ch'ang-sheng could not stand the suffering any longer and thus ran away. On the fourth day of the first month the Patriarch Master was about to ascend [to Immortal-hood] pass away and the three masters stood by his bed.

The Patriarch-Master said, 'Tan-yang has already acquired the Tao, Ch'ang-chen already understands the Tao and I have nothing to worry about [regarding them]. Ch'ang-sheng and Ch'ang-ch'un have not yet [acquired the Tao]. Ch'ang-ch'un in studying should listen to Tan-yang's orders. Ch'ang-chen should look after Ch'ang-sheng.

In the past you thought to yourself that everything that you had been taught had nothing to do with the matter [of the Tao]. You never understood that the point at which you do not seek is the the Tao. I am not sure of why Wang determined that Ma had accumulated more merit and deeds than Ch'iu had during his past incarnations, but as a result he transmitted his breathing techniques to Ma only. As we will see in more detail in the next chapter, a complete detachment from superfluous thoughts, desires and attachments was a pre-requisite which had to be met before the various esoteric physiological methods could be practiced properly and effectively.

Thus Ch'iu was made to accumulate merit by training his capacity to shut 20chuan 2pp. Ch'iu's error lay in his inability to realize that hasteful longing for the Tao was what was hindering him from attaining it. As for why Wang was able to know what Ch'iu had been thinking, the implication is that Wang possessed the super-normal ability to know what is in the minds of other people.

As we will see later, this kind of supernormal power was regarded as an important defining characteristic of a Perfected Man. We can see that Wang was a very harsh master towards all of his disciples.

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It was deemed necessary for a monk to suffer, and thus Wang made his disciples suffer. One biography21 tells us that during the few days before his death, Wang also tortured his disciples by making them eat large quantities of a stew full of rotten meat and fish. It was this near sadistic quality of Wang that made his inner circle of disciples a very exclusive and distinct group: "Because he frequently manifested his divine extraordinariness performed miracles , people of the east Shantung all followed him.

He cleaned off and parcelled out the earnest ones and cut off the pretenders. Hundreds of times he whipped them, and angrily insulted them. The unworthy fled. I will now leave it up to the Ch'iian-chen hagiographers to describe for you the difficulties which disciples put upon themselves in order to accumulate merit and accomplish Perfection: "[Ma Tan-yang] cultivated true merit and accumulated true deeds. He wore clothes made of paper and hemp. He ate coarse food. In the severe cold of mid-winter he exposed his body and went barefoot.

He nurtured his simplicity amidst the clamor of the shops and market places. Beautiful sights did not arouse his essence. His mind was like ashes, and because of this he regarded coldness as a benefit. His body was like a tree, and therefore did not act in lewd ways. If people gave him food, he would eat. But if not, he showed no traces of resentment. If someone asked him something, he would answer with hand gestures. He lived in a cave and begged for one meal per day, going about wearing a grass mantle.

People called him 'Mr. Grass Mantle'. For six years he went day and night without sleeping. After this he hid himself in Mt. Perfected Man Ch'iu [Ch'ang-ch'un] praised him saying,'In the summer he stood facing the sun. In the winter he slept embracing the snow. Consequently he went to a bridge and sat silently and motionlessly upon it. Amidst coldness or heat he did not change his attire. If people gave him food, he ate. If they did not give him food, he would not [eat]. Even when there were people who insulted and ridiculed him, he did not get angry.

His will was [concentrated] on forgetting his body. He was like this for three years. People called him Mr. One evening when the sky was dark, a drunkard accidentally kicked the teacher while crossing the bridge, knocking him down under the bridge. People did not know what had happened and thus wondered where the teacher was. It suddenly happened that when a travelling official was trying to cross the bridge on horseback, the horse became startled and started to buck and would not advance even when whipped. The traveller got off his horse and asked [people] left and right, 'There must be something strange under the bridge.

If not, why is my horse frightened? They found a Taoist Hao sitting properly upright in a meditative position in a relaxed manner. When they questioned him he speechlessly wrote on the ground with his hand, 'I have not eaten for seven days'. The commoners of the district heard of this and hurried forth to offer him food, burn incense and beg him to come out [from under the bridge]. But he only waved his hand and refused. He just sat under the bridge for three more years.

Water and fire overturned, yin and yang came together and the Merit of Nine Cycles 27was completed.

Frostbite damaged her appearance but she did not regard it as suffering. This variation of methods for each individual seems to have been, and still is, an important characteristic of Ch'iian-chen Perfection Cultivation. Not only was 2 7 A n alchemical metaphor meaning that he had successfully undergone the physiological processes of Perfection Cultivation. Thus the disciples, rather than sticking together and training themselves in a communal fashion, chose to disperse, as each one had a different strategy towards Perfection in mind.

Chung-nan in order to bury him. They then rebuilt the meditational hut in which their master had resided during his years of training. After this they gathered together to discuss what was to be done next: "The master Ma , together with the three masters T'an, Liu and Ch'iu stayed at the Chen-wu Shrine in the town of Ch'in-tu On a moon-lit night, each proclaimed his will. The master Ma said, 'I will combat poverty. But it seems as though perhaps Ma was vowing to live a life of poverty, T'an was vowing to fight off the temptations which surrounded him in whatever environment that he was in, Liu was vowing to test the limits of his will power, and Ch'iu was vowing to combat his laziness.

The approach that one was to take was thought to be something that must be determined by the ammount of merit and deeds points that one had accumulated in present 55 and past lives and by one's degree of intelligence, strength, vitality and stamina. Ma had the largest accumulation of merit and deeds and was already in his later middle age as were T'an and Sun. Thus he seems to have concentrated primarily on meditational methods practiced in seclusion in his hut and did not resort to methods that were quite as extreme as those of some of the others.

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Ch'iu, Yii-yang and Hao, on the other hand, felt or were perhaps told that they were inferior in terms of their points that they had accumulated. Also, they were still young men. Thus they seem to have submitted themselves to physical ordeals of a considerably more arduous nature. Yau told me that an aspiring Ch'uan-chen priest I do not use the word "monk" here because the Ching-chung Taoist Association has abandoned the practice of monasticism. During this training period, one's time should be equally devoted to three activities; studying scriptures, meditating and performing good deeds evangelism and charity.

But most importantly, he told me, an aspiring priest was supposed to use his own judgement to discover the training regimen that is best suited for himself. The three-fold regimen of scriptural study, meditation and good deeds is merely Rev. Yau's own suggestion. Realizing that the ascetic element was conspicuously lacking in Rev. Yau's description, I reminded him of the arduous ordeals that his 12thth century predecessors underwent and asked him why such methods were no longer being practiced.

His reply was that the original Ch'uan-chen masters were trying out such methods in order to innovate new paths to salvation for themselves and for others. Thus, what they did was appropriate and 56 necessary for themselves and their contemporaries, but is not necessarily required or applicable for practitioners of the present day. Part of what makes religious Taoism such a unique and interesting religion is the fact that it is not just a set of beliefs and practices based on adherence to certain designated and uncompromisable dogmas.

Very often, particularly in the case of Ch'iian-chen and other similar sects, the Taoist religion takes on the complexion of a sort of proto-science of salvation and Immortal-hood. In other words, there was and apparently still is an attitude that always allowed for new developments in doctrine and practice based on newly discovered or revealed insights towards how suffering and death could be bypassed.

There was a definite attitude of acceptance toward new ideas and ways if there was any kind of conceivable reason for why they would work. I really think that Rev. Yau's remarks point us towards the proper direction in understanding the role of the Ch'iian-chen masters within the history of the development of religious Taoist doctrine and practice.

Within the development of this proto-science of salvation and Immortality, they seem to have perhaps been the ones who "researched" the ascetic approach of "purity and stillness" more than anyone else. So as they each went about in their experimentation in the ascetic approach towards Perfection, how were they supposed to know whether or not their efforts were bringing the proper results? This meant to be devoid of bondage to feelings such as desire especially lust fear, sorrow and anger. MTC tells of five tests put upon Lii Ch'un-yang by divine forces, each of which he passed with flying colors.

According to MTC, the first trial took place when Lu was about to leave his home town to pursue the life of a Taoist beggar monk. Suddenly, all of the members of his family died of illness. However, Lii felt and showed no sorrow but simply 57 gathered together the materials needed for their funeral. Thus he had passed the first test, and his whole family was miraculously brought back to life by the gods. The second trial took place when a band of robbers plundered his house, leaving nothing behind. Lii simply watched it happen without saying or doing anything. The third trial took place shortly after he had left his home town.

He got lost, and as he wandered about he came upon a house in which a fisherman lived. The fisherman kindly let Lii stay overnight while he went out for some night fishing. While the fisherman was gone, a gorgeous young woman came knocking at the door and subsequently resorted to every method imaginable to try and seduce Lii.

But Lii remained completely unaroused sexually all night long. He eventually woke up finding himself sitting alone under a large tree. The fourth trial took place as Lii was crossing a river in a small boat. Lii remained completely unfrightened, and miraculously survived the storm. In the fifth and final trial, Lu was staying at a travel lodge when he encountered a throng of demons and ghosts. One of them, the ghost of a badly cut and bruised prison convict, declared that he had been murdered by Lii during one of his previous incarnations, and that he wished to avenge his own death by beheading Lii.

Lii calmly exposed his bare neck for the ghost to chop off. His life was spared when a loud shout was heard out of nowhere, and the demons and ghosts disappeared. The Immortal Chung-li Cheng-yang who had let out the shout , seeing that Lii was ready, took him with him to Mt. Chung-nan to reveal to him the most profound secrets of Perfection Cultivation. In much the same way, the lives of the Ch'uan-chen masters were filled with trying circumstances which had to be dealt with with an "unwavering heart". If they failed to do so, it served as proof of their unworthiness.

The following incident was perhaps his greatest moral victory: "A drunk man asked the master Tan , Where do you come from? His teeth were broken and blood was flowing, but with a very content expression he spat out his teeth into his hand and went off singing and dancing. People in the marketplace who saw this were furious. They made [T'an] report this [incident] to an official. But all that the master said [to the official] was, He was only drunk. When he heard about this [incident] he praised [T'an] saying, '[By receiving] a single blow he has erased the karma of his entire lifetime!

There was a drunk man [at the saloon]. Amidst the insults [that he was saying to me], I received a punch from him. Thereupon I ran, but he dragged me back and punched me again. All I could do was take it and bear it. Have any of you ever met with this kind of demonic hazard? If you do encounter [such a situation], do not fight back.

Chinese society in general has never had a high degree of respect for ascetic holy 31HCp. I am almost certain that CLC's version is inaccurate because the writings of the first generation of Ch'iian-chen masters indicate that during the sect's early stages there was little or no animosity between the Ch'uan-chen Taoists and the Buddhists. But in later years, a very intense animosity did occur, and Ch'uan-chen writings frequently seem to try to make the Buddhists look bad.

Thus by living as beggars, the Ch'iian-chen masters exposed themselves to constant derision and occasional violence. Thus here we see virtually the same thing happening to both T'an and Ma; and Ma speaks of this experience to his disciples as an example of a hazard that they themselves are very likely to encounter some day. While the Ch'uan-chen masters had to deal with derision and violence at the hands of people while they trained themselve amidst the towns, they also had to deal with the hazards wrought by Mother Nature when they trained themselves in seclusion.

Such was particularly the case with Ch'iu Ch'ang-ch'un and Wang Yu-yang. In the face of these natural hazards, they continuously tested their capacity to maintain their composure under adversity and temptation. Yin Ch'ing-ho narrates the following episode involving Ch'iu: "My Master-Father, the Perfected Man [Ch'iu] Ch'ang-ch'un went about straining his will power and encountering evils dealing with evils and fighting off temptations.

Fearing only that his merit was lacking, he went to and fro carrying rocks on top of mountains in order to fight off his sleepiness. Only because he was yet lacking in good deeds was he unable to stabilize his mind. After this he encountered the evil of death twice. One time he exposed himself to the cold and almost died at his own hands. On another occasion, a flying rock hit him and broke three of his ribs and limbs. After this, he came close to death many more times. Demons of illness hit him and broke his arms three times.

Amidst these demonic hazards, his heart did not waver. Throughout his life he strained his will power doing nothing but training himself. If people have determination, they will overcome the evils. If one has no determination, he will encounter no evils. Therefore Ch'iu deliberately exposed himself to life-threatening circumstances in order to create opportunities to accumulate merit. Yin Ch'ing-ho advises his disciples to do the same if they wish to be like him.

Another life-threatening peril which existed in the wilderness was wild beasts, particularly tigers. On this particular evening, as [tigers and leopards] went in and out, one of the people who was there training together with Ch'iu became horrified, and in the morning wanted to build a wall to keep the tigers out of the hut or grotto in which they were staying.

Firmly, with determination he resigned himself to life and death did not long for his life to be spared nor did he fear death. His fearful thoughts naturally no longer existed. Thus he got to where he was unwavering like a mountain amidst the surroundings of life and death. In a single moment he was emancipated from his various forms of attachment. This is going to places which are difficult to go to. If one wished to be an Immortal like Lu Ch'un-yang, he had to be willing to "bare his neck" in the midst of life-threatening circumstances.

While engaging in the life-long quest to overcome mortality, one was not supposed to want to avoid death. As we will see in the next chapter, the Ch'iian-chen masters were in fact very much concerned with how to avoid disease and death and lengthen the lifespan. Ultimately, their ascetic and sometimes dare devil-like activities were thought to be a means by which the health of the mortal body could be better maintained.

While they ultimately did not want to die, they did not allow themselves to think it, because the fear of death and the desire to live were themselves causes of disease and death. Thus I wrote the following poem quickly in order to save his life: Mr.

Liu, listen to my exhortation. Studying Buddha-hood and studying Immortal-hood, Is to rely on one's knowledge and insight in order to cut off and abandon the mind's dust. It is not to be accomplished by burning and abandoning the body. Intricately cultivate, refine and train the spiritual elixir. Strive for the nine cycle completion of your merit and deeds. Follow in the footsteps of Hai-ch'an, the brilliant Patriarch Liu.

Liu contemplated resorting to cremating himself alive as a result of the influence of Ch'iian-chen teaching, I do not know. But such could very likely have been the case. But anyway, Ma attempted to change his mind I do not know whether he succeeded, although I certainly hope he did by reminding him that he needed to keep 3 7CYC chuan 10 p. Aside from the fear of life-threatening hazards of the temporal realm, a Ch'Uan-chen monk also had to conquer his fear of gods and demons.

Apparently for Ch'iu Ch'ang-ch'un, this type of fear was particularly difficult to conquer: "[Ch'iu] himself said, I am not scared by fierce tigers, but when I see a clay statue of a god slaying [evil spirits, sinners? It took him three years to overcome this fear. This, of course, serves to remind us of the fact that the world as perceived by people back in the 12th century was one which was filled with an infinite number of gods and demons, many of which were regarded as vicious bringers of misfortune.

With the Buddhist concept of hell already well established in Taoist religion and in popular religion, men of faith like Ch'iu had to struggle with the fear of damnation and punishment at the hands of the gods. For Ch'iu, this type of fear was rooted much deeper than any of his fears toward what we would call the real world. Later on, we will see that not only was a Perfected Man not supposed to be afraid of any gods or demons, but he was supposed to be superior to them and have complete control over them.

This was supposedly what would make him an effective healer and performer of rituals. What is vital for us to understand about the perspective of the Ch'uan-chen masters is that they thought that to have a completely enlightened spirit free of all superfluous thoughts, emotions and attachments meant by definition to be in complete control of one's physical body and the ch'i that it is made out of.

Thus the body's inability to withstand 38 chuan 3 p. A particularly traumatic and embarrassing failure for a Ch'iian-chen monk was the ejaculation of semen intentional or unintentional under any circumstance. The way in which a truly determined monk was to react to such personal setbacks was simple; more discipline, more suffering and more hard work: "Master-Father Ch'ang-ch'un said, 'Looking at all of the [other] masters, I realized that they were all superior to me in their countenances of blessing and wisdom.

Finally I exerted my heart. After three years my ambition was to refine my mind to the point where it is like cold ashes. After ten years of aspiring, my mind was beyond control and could not be subdued. I myself realized that my merit was lacking. Again I increased in my determination. Wearing a pair of sandals I tied them and untied them over and over again at night and ran seventeen to eighteen laps in order to keep my nature from getting darkened falling asleep? After fifty days of doing this I had an unwavering mind. My perfected heart was like a crystal pagoda.

The Master-Father wept and wailed. It was from this time that [he knew that] his merit was shallow. Later, when a military general in Ch'ang-an summoned him to perform a chai ritual, he leaked [semen] three times during the night. The Master-Father himself realized that his merit was lacking and that he had been unable to accomplish the Tao.

He experienced heavenly temptations and great temptations of the five emperors. Even when a flying rock broke three ribs and limbs, his heart did not waver. Later he reached the holy sages the Immortals took notice of his gallant efforts and heard a human voice of an Immortal?

After leaving his home he never leaked [semen]. But later, one evening on Mt. He wailed and wept in extreme despair, and felt hungry The [gods of ] the various heavens thereupon spread about harmonious ch'i Three days later 39Chen-hsien Chih-chihYii-lu lower chuan pp.

From then on he underwent rigors and ways of training. One time, he knelt in rocks and gravel until his knees became tattered to the bones. In mountains full of rough rocks and thorn bushes he went about with bare feet. This why [people of] the world call him 'Iron Legs'.

In three years his old karma disappeared. They trained and punished themselves to the point where they themselves could finally believe that they had done and had succeeded at everything that is necessary for attaining Perfected Man status. IJIi'l il What Chi Should. Chapter 1. Four Rulesfo. C,haplteor 1,5. Tbe' Tw'e,l. IOIIS - f Cbines,s cultul"1e is like ,B very old m. Y'ettbrough hi:s experience, he has a18 0 1. Btes,t achievements of the human spirit, It reflroct.

Despite this fatalistic belief'l they ba'vestill looked fOl' ways tOI. Overthe ,years" 'many different :sectolrs of'Chineaesom,ety have :s'tuclied and, researched C'hi. It 'W',RS they who learned the methods of maintaining healtb and turing siekness, Chi,nl! Nat'ur,ally, Chinese Chi Kung was ,also, affected by the Buddhist mleditativepractices. Jia,on Kung" buildin,g the st:rength externally 'Or' 'y D d" t t. People who exercise a lot and whose badiesare e'xtemally 'sbolng ,are not necessarily healthier Dr happier' than the average per,SOD. True good 'health is both extienud and internal.

Thi will' mLdI! According to CbJneae philOBOphy;too 'much of' something'is ex,cesllive Yang and too little ie, excel,sive, 'Ym, and neither extreme is desir,llble. When Chine. The proper amount 'of exercise will generate olDly enoiugb Chi to stimulate the organs ,and belp them. Chi Kung pr,acti. Dong" liter. Strengthening yourself internally and externally at the same timei,s called "Shi.

Shuang Shinn me ans double, eultivation, 'The expression therefore means, that if' you desire to gain real healtb, you must cultivate your' character in. The inter. Many people bave been able to find their i. As ,8 matter' of fact" internal. These negative fil'ttitudes on1:y keplt people. Man:, people, in. China and India bavedevBloped amazing powers througb their meditation training. Fortunately, these powlers, were understood as being a result of Chi.

Although Chi Kung is bec:o,ming a. Ame'rican people" and even by many in the medical establi'shment. Mor,e and l. Many:p,eop, e are Iearning that tbe s,tudy of Chi. It is, the same with Chi Kung'. Chi Kung' is often narrowlliy thought 'ofas only exercises air DltuiitatiDns which can be used to impFove ens's he,a1th te cure ,s]tc. Chi Kung w'hicb are directly related to the' human body will be' diseussed later in 8 sepa;ra'te section. F,or uam:pls! Without rain, the plauts will die, The Chinese believe th. Heaven the s'ky Io. B, sunshine, moonlight, and thiemoon',s affect on, the tides, In ancient.

Th,ese energies, must also balance, otherwis,e d:isasters, such BS earthquakes will oeeun Whe,D the Chi ofthe earth is, balanGed,p,lants will ,grow and,. Fin any, within the Earth Chi, eaeh individual person" animal, and pla'nt, 'has its own Chi 'u,eld, which. Human C:bi is u,Bu,ally eonsidsred a sep. B,t Chi. The: :spiri. It Is :i. The term can be, ,applied to any' special :8kiU or s,tudy as, lone: as it re,qui.

Boolk of Changes; 11'2'2B. Tbe's,e three lac,ets 0,1 nature: have their defi. This ealeu].. Ei,lht 'Trigrams. Understandin,1 Heaven C. I' -,Ie. Nel Dan 3. But ainee na. Earth Chi is ,8 part of Heaven Chi. It you. Feng Shoel! The study of' Human Cbi eeversaIarge number of different ,subjects.. The Chinese, people believe that Human.

Chi is affected and controlled by Heaven C,hi andE,orth Chi,. Therefore" if you understand the relationship between natare BD"d people, in addition to understanding. The people who. Ming Shy" ealeulate life teachers. Howev,er, thegreatest achievement in the s,t. Remember that you arepart of nature, and you are ehanneled into the cycles of nature, If. The use of acupuncture" acupressure, and. Meditation and m,oving Cbiltung 'exercises are used widely by the Chinese people to improve their'health even to eure certain illnesses.

Meditation and Chi Kung exercises serve an. Heaven Chi, Earth Chi. Kung' which means "external Kun,g Fu. Kua" and Hsing Yi. It is extremely difficult, to write ,. Even, though. Contemp,Qirary, eathu:smaetic minds will have' plsn,ty 'of op,portuni,ty to research. Hopefully other Chl Kung experts 'will be encouraged.

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This w,ould be' one of the gJ",eatest cross-eultural achievemen. Most ,available documents BIle' not sy,stema. The main plurpoee of this, book. When, we find eurselvle,s in a new environm,snt or ,start ,Btuclyingll,omethiD,g Dew,. This is comm,o,nly seen. I you keep your mind open and try to, unde.

In m-. D, be ie, eonsidered 8 traitor to the culture. This is e8:peeially necessary in regar-d 'to ancieD't ,sciences which wer,e! Many 0" the theories which bavebeen p,ueed downwlere based upon many ,yean, O'f experience. Btift to the science and, understanding which we possess,. DI, which were thanproven b,Y car,elol experimentation. It is the same with Chi. Kung practic. If ytl,u 'took and study eareful.. This, is Ispecl1. Yow:'will and wisdom, must be ,able to dominate and conquer' your em'Dtiomtl. I believe that D. Dds mM'al virtues" and Dot just wisdom. A :pemoD who is truly wise knows, that-he must dewlop the other J c.

In additio'D. Many opportunities to succeed are lost by people' who are, too :proud of their intelligence.. Tbere 'is D, Chinese story about a group of peo,ple who Ico'mpeted in a snake.. The man W,De, very upset, and asked lhe judge 'why he di,dn't 'Win; after all, 'he' had finished he'fore ieveryone else. The joop :I! A perso-n who is really wise understands tbat real success depends nQlt only his wisdom but also on his, moral eharaeter, Therefore" he 'Nill also cultivate his moral character aDd develolp biB g'ood.

Remember'tbe story of tbe tortoise and th,e hare, If'the rabbit had not beenso proud ,and -. In that ease"we wiIlhave. It offers, you the ,foUB,datiion of knowledge and training pr,a,ctices which is required to understand ,subsequent. TIns, book consists offolU' m. JI dis IWlC. This will enable' t. Finally, the fourth part will conclude! I have about Chi ,Kung. This period, lasted until the overthrow of the Ching dynasty in ,. Before the. Studying the relationship, of these threariatural power:s was the first a,tap in 'the dev,elopment. In An Yang in Henan provinee. Most of' the information recorded was of ,a,religious nD.

Tbere W8. Nei IChingthat during the r. It ean be seen from t'me list that up to this time, almost all orth. Chi Kung' publications, war,. Therle were two major types of Chi Kung training,. One type W,IlS, used by the Confucian and Taoist seholars, who used it 'pdxnarily to maintain their' health. The other type of Chi Kung 'was, for medical purposes, using' needles or exerlcil'e,s to ,adjust the Chi or to curs' illness, 3. Historirc,aJ deeuments for this period are searee today, and it is, difficult to obtain detailed inforlnat. All of the trainin;g feeused 'Oln following the natural way and implr'o,ving and maintaining health, Actively countering the ,effects of natur,e was eonsidered impossible.

The Buddhist temples 'taugbtman. Z,en I which marked a new era of Chinese Chi Kung. Much of the deeper Chi. Kung theory and practices which had been developed in India were brought to China. Ont " in this eentury bas it been ,8v',ailabJe to the general populace. Not long after Buddhism was Imported mte China. Since: Tibet hard its own branch of Bu,ddhis,m with. It was, in this period th,st the tr,aditi,on.

While the scholarly and m. D eoneemed with maintaining and impI'Qlvinghealth" the newly imported religieus Chi Kung was eeneerned wit. Also, in this period a physician named Ger Homg 'mentioned, using the mind to lead sold increase Chi in his book. Baw Poh Tzyy. Sumetimes in the period, of to ,5,81A. Taur Homg-Iiing' compiled the uYeang She. Kung' 'which Influenced and dominated the Chi Kung, practice in this period, These! Religious Chi. Relatively spe,aking" religious Chi Kung theory is, deeper than the theory of the non-religioue Chi Kun,g" and th.

Buddhist monk. When Da MOl arrived" he saw that the priests, were weak and si,ckly, he ;shut him,self away to ponder the problem.. The Marl'low' Was,hing Clos,silc taught the priests, bow to use Chi to clean the bone marrow and strengthen the 'blood and immune system, as well as how to energize the brain and,. In addition to this ma. Chaur Yuan.. Tai Chi F followed ,8 different ap,p'roach i:n its use of C. While: Shaohn emphasized Wa. Ie started using Chi Kung in their' martial fraining, ll.

In A. Acupuncture and Moxib,ustion. He explained therelationship of the 12 ergans and. Wang used acupuncture to cure the emperor ,Ren Tzong. Between ,to A. His work contributed greatly to tbe advaneement of Chi Kung and Chineee medicine by giviu,g EI, elear and systematic idea of'the circulation of Chi in the humanbody Later, in the: Southern Song dynasty From then until the en.

During the Chin. This was due to the encouragement and interestof the Ma. Characteristic,s ,ofCh:il Kung during' this ,period,w',s:re,:. Chi Kung ,exercises had bec,[nne more popular in Chinesesocie"ty.. From the :End 01 'Ch:ing Dyaasity to th. EVIB:nthough China had, been expandingits eontaet with the' cutside world fOlr the p,revious, hundred, years, the outside world had, little influence beyond. With the overthrow of the' Ching dynasty in. Chinese Republic, the nation started changing' as never before. SincI' this 'time ChllKung practice has, entered a new era.. Ma'ny Chinese have opened their minds, and changed their traditional i,deas" especially in Taiwan and Hong Kong.

Various Chi Kung styles are now being' ta'ught lopenly, and many :tormerly seleret documents have been published. Modern, methods ofeernmunication have, opened up Chi Kung'to at mueh 'wid! I beUevle that in the: near future Chi Kung 'will be eonsidered the most ,e'xeiting' and challen. Since m,ost. II' fI. Th,ree IOrigi. J" rt it In. Cb WJW,W, eans "t re fi th. If YOQ,k. If you neglect lor abuse them, you will be sick. Each one of these three elements or treasures, has its own rao,i.

Jiang can be used as a verb, ,an a ljective, or a n. When it is used as 18 verb, it means "tp refine. When Jien,g is used in r,efer,ence to animals or humans, itmeans the 'Vfa'ry eriginal and assential source Iife and ,growth. The child. The ,Jien. It is what enables you to grow stronger and. Chi Kung' ,practitioners believe th. IThe amount and quality ofO. Generally speaking, it does not 'matter how mueh Origio,a. In Chi K. When your kid. Therefore, I. The: root o,f y,our IOrigin,o , ,Jfueng before your birth j,s in your parents.

Mter birth, this Original Jisng' ,sta,YiB in, its residence, the kid:neys" which are now also its root. You started as one sperm which, because it managed to reaeh and :penetra. FinaUy" the baby iarmed. All of the baby's health depended on the sperm and legg which.

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Onee you are born, yo,u ,start taking in 0I:Y,ge'o through your nose and food threuga you. SDUTee because it is here that Chl is 'rna. According to Chine,se medical and Cbi. Kung society, the Original. As you may realize from the above diseussion, if you wish. The gnnads ,are called the: "external kidneys" in Chinese medica] society. Please understand that tbe Chinese doetors and Cbi Kung practitioners, are:.

DO,t saying that in erderto conserve y,our Jie'ng, you, must stop ,Your sexual actilvity completely. As ,8 matter of fact, tbe'y encourage the proper amount ofsexual a,ctivity; believing that it 'will energize and activate the' Jie'ng'" which makes the Ji,eng',-,Chi eenversion more efficient.

It its very important to keep your' Shen. These four Chi reaerveirs vessels keep the legs strong and healthy. Tbes,e:two cavities are the doors through which the kidneys communicate with the outside, and. Wben Chit is converted from Ori. In Chi Kung practice, one of'the major trainings is le,aming how to Iead the! Chi ,at the beginning' of' this chapter in general term's, we will now diseuse Chi in the human. Before 'we start, we would like to p'oint out, one importan:t thin,g. At this time', there is. TheWestem world. Now" there is, the Chi cil",cuIation s,ystem from China.

How is the, lymphatic, s,ystem related tOI the Chi syste1m? It is believed that. Chi provid'es the energy for the blood cells, to 'keep them alive. As a matter of fact, it is believe,. If you look carefully" you can see that the elements of your physical body such as the organs, nerves" blood, and even every tiny cen are all like separate machines,.

Just like electric mo,tors'J if there is no current in them" they are dead. Tbili, is simply because Chi is the energy needed t-o keep them all alive and funetiontng,. Some of the raw materials brought Intoa fa,ctory are used to, create the ener-gy with which otber I'a'w materials win be converted into fmished goods,.

The Chi in your body is analogous to the, electric current which the wire,s connecting. Now, let us look at your entire body. Inside your body are many organs, whieh correspond to. It is, nOIdifferent in yOIUTbody, VI'here there are systems, of intestines, blood vessels, complex networks 'of nerves and Chi ehannala to fa'cilitate, the supply at blood, sensory information and energy tOI the entire body.

However, unlfke the diges,tive circulato,T:Y, and central nervous systems The circulatory, nervous, and Chi systems all possess similar Iconfigurations withinth,e body, and are distributed rather' equally throughout the body. In a factory, different machines requir-e different levela of current. It is the same for your organs, which require diffeJ'lent levels of Chi. Ira machine i:s :supplied with, an improper'level of power, it will not fun'ction normally and may even be damaged. In the same way, your organ's, when the Chi level running to them is either too pOisitive or too negative', wiU be damaged and wiD degenerate more rapidly.

The j. On the top is the word "nothin,glJ and ,at the bottom is the word "'me. It This implies tha. To m,llintain your ,organs in B bealthy state and to insure that. If you don't 'Chi, is affected by the quality ,of air :you inhale" the kind, or food ,you eat, your. You ,are. Chi ,circulation.

In order'to Wlderstand. Now a few words, u to 'the B U'Ce of human Chi. As mentioned, Chinese doctors ,and C,hi Kung practitioners believe that;, th. Uterailb;,meSllS nPre-heavenly Chi. Jl 0" d. BDu3,',atr we ". This includes the funeti'Dnin:g' of the brain and the organs, and even body movement, Ying Chi is again divided into two maJor 'types.

DW to, the musclee 'needed t-o do tbejob.. This type of Chi is directed by your thoughts, and therefore Is related closely to your feelings and emotions. The, second m. We,y Chi, forms a shield Ion the surface of th. Wey Chi comes from the Chi. In the summertime, Y'Dur body is Yang and your C. In the wintertime'" your body is relatively Ym negatrve , and you must conserve you! For example, w'ben, you feel happy or angry, the Chi shield will be more open than when you are sad". Chi Kung praetifionera believe th. S,hen is eensidered to he tbe headquartera which directs and contra III the Chi.

Th,erefofle" wben you practice Chi Kung you must understand what your Shen is and know 'how to raise it. As we di. It is also said that youI' Yi should be in the center of your em,ortions". Tbis w'ay wisdom rules and the emotions areeontrollsd, not s,upprI'l8ssed. Once Water Chi is, grenera. In order to, Iconserve your Water Chi, you must keep your kidneys, firm and strong,. Shen can 'be translated as, s,pirit, god, im'mortal, soul, mind, divine, S,O. In order -,to reach this goal, U. Whein you are alive" ISben is the I,pirit which is directed by your mind.

Shen Buh Ning. Buddhists and Taoi:sts train tbemselvtuJ, to be free 0" lemotions. OnIy in, this way are they ,able 'to bniIDd a s,tro. Howev,er, when you are very ,slick lor' near de'ath, ylour Yi becomes weak. It is then called ,s "H ul. Sometime's "Shen H:wen" is '0 used C. Chin,ese' beUev,e that when your lShen reaches a higher and s,tronger state', you are able to sense and feel 'more :sbarply, an,d your mind is. It is believed that when. Go" meanIng flspm it 1 ,BS'U. You can see from the' above discusaicn that Ling is, th,e supernatueal 'pla:rt, of the s",ilrit. DDy hundreds of year,s.

It is believedthas when your Shen has reached this higher, sensitive state' you can transcend your mind's normal cap,acit,Y. Ideas beyond your usual grae,p can be! The foundation of Buddhist and Taoist Chi Kung training is to finn you-r S'hen"no uri sh 'it" and gl"'DW it until it is mature enou,gh to separate from ylour p:hyrrsica] body. Your Shen resides, in the Upp'er Dan. Tien m'rehead , in the place often known as the third. Finn here means to. This is caned "Shen Buh Shnou She!

In Chi Kung" when your Chi can reach and neurish your Shen effi. Sben, i'B t. When your Shren is weak, your Chi Is we,ak and the body will deg'enera,te rapidly. Likewis,e, Cbi 8npp,orts, the Shen, e1D,e. After y'our birth, this Original Bs,gence is your' most important energy source, -. When your Sben ha energised but restrained by yonrYi it is called ""J'ien! ItIs abl,! When yon. Thirs raised-up Shen, can dire'ctand ,govern 'the Ohi lefficientl.

In eonclusien, we w'Ould, like to pcint out that your Shen and brain cannot he separated. Shen is tbe spiritual part of your bein,g' and is gener,ated, and controlled by your mind. Three Chine. Y use both "Yi" and "Hsin'' at different time's to mean "mind,' often confusing people who are not familiar with the Chinese language", HefOl'Fe advancing any fnrth,e:r:, you should first be: sure, that you have a clear understanding of the subtle differences between thes,s' tWOI words,.

Yi is, themind which i. SI related tn wisdom and judgement. When Yi has an Idea, it strirv,ss to bring it 'to actuelisation in thephysieal world as either an event you will seek to bring' about. Thil, mind is ,passive:Instead of active Iike theYi. When ,someouesa:ySI be has Yi to do something, this means he intends to d,iQit. If be ,says be has Hsin to do it" ,this means his emctions intend to do it, he has within you. In most people, the emotional mind is stronger than tbe wi,sd. ITbey act aeeording to how they lee'l,. The emotional mind.. Fer example, your wisdom mind Yil!

Since most of the tbou,gbt was generated and given its primal nature by the emotions first, before being' refin,edby the' will,.

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  6. This 'is a good example of how Hsin Is used, to denote the emotional mind, and Yi is used fOlr the. Ui lIS " S However, the Yi aspect of the mind is still the strongest, being generated from thought and will, This, mind can firm, the scattered emcticnal mind and the sipirit" t'hereby rail:dnJg' up the spirit, When the sipirit Is raised and firmed, the' emotional mind Hs.

    The Pest.. For example, alcohol and drugs can stimulate your' emotienal mind and suppress your wisdom mind. One part of Cbit Kung training is learning how to 'regulate your Fi. One of the more common m,ethods, of strengthening the Water Chi and, wisdom mind and. This preeees 'of'"cleaning" t'heir bodies and minds is important inridding th:s monks of ,emotional disturbance. Dan Tien is translated literally as "Elixir Field. Chi Kung society, three ,spots, are considered, Dan Tien. The fir,st one is called "Shi. In Chinese medicine it is called Qih. In both Chinese medicine and.

    In erder 00 be he,althy, ,the Chi reservoirs 'must be full and the' Chi must flow smoothly witheut stagnaticn in the rivers see the Idetailed explanation of human Chi circulation in Part ,3, '.. Among the eight vessels is the Conception vessel, which is Yin, and the Governingvessel, which is 'Yang,. Tney are located, ,on the center line of the front and the back o,:fthe tor,so and head, II. At any. If there is no difference Inpotential the Chi will stay stilland become stagnant, and you are likely to become ill.. Chinese Chi Kung practitioners believe that the Chi must be full and circulate' s,trDn,g]y in these two vessels, for' then the GDverning vessel will be able to govern.

    The most significant blockage can occur in the Hniyin cavitty Figure ,. Chi circulation. The Ievel ;ofyour Post.. The A' -lAC! This Chi then r,esid! Therefbre, the lungareais called the Upper Burner ,shang Jiae , the stomach is ealled th. The' three' are fieferred to coUectively as the: "Triple Burner" lSanjiao. You can deduce from the a'bove dec8cription tbat the Upper Burner is the burner which bandles air Ch. This is caned "Shang Hooo 'which means simply that the body is "en ti:re. When someone has eaten too i.

    Chi to supply 'the organs and the body; and! Chl at the Lower Dan Ti. Ybur spirit resides in yourUp,pe'r' nan Tien, and whe:n it is, amply supplied. Jieng" Chi ,I and Shen thethree flowers. Liann Shan Huan Shin ; and 4. The firat step is, to 'firm and strengthen the Jieng" then convert th:islJi,eng into Chi threugh meditation er other methods. This Ch:i is then Ied to. When a Taoist has reached this stage, it is called "the three flowersmeet on the top. When this happens" it ts like 'running the wrong level of electric current into a machine, ]f the condition. Therefore" one of the most important practiees in Chi Kung tr'sinin,g is Jeamingto keep, the Chi in tbese five' organs at tb.

    U Chi Chaur 'Yuan,!! There are twelve Chi ehannels and eight extraordinary ,Chi vessels, Tbe 'Cbi in tbe tw,elve' channels should he at the. The Chi in these twelve channels changes with the tiDlI! U,S,tknow bow Chi is affe,cted. In Part IThree of'thi,1 book 'we'will. Once you understand the 'tra,diUoDal eoneept of Chi, we! In this seetion, 'we 'will fir',st discuss the natural eharacteristiee or Chi and the r sJatlonahip, between Chi and the human body.

    Then w,e win explain how' Chi's Yin, and Yang are de,fined, and how-the! Iquality l. The Na. FIOl' example, you may burn 8, piece of' w,ood or ,gas, and. Whenever you, 'taklein morefaodthan your 'body requires" the uneBrei,ed ,exce,S is I,tored in your body as fat. Bince eleetrici:ty has become' 'more famUiar to, people in. Q' part IOf the Chi to be converted.

    Once YOllba. All of ihlu. The Behavior orBuman C. Bowever,if you stir, 'u:p the water,tb'l sand will rise up, ,and dirty 'the 'w,ater again. Third, the Chi channels, which e,upply IChi to the en. In ,any discussion 'of energy wherepeople are: involved, Human Chi is used as the standard. People are alway. This Is ,not unlike looking at the U. F,or example:, when ,8 person is dead, his residual 'Human Chi Goa Cbi or ghost Chi its weak compared to, alivi:ng person's.

    Wh'en ,discussing' Chi within. If the t ths. The Yin organs, store: Original Bssenee and process "the Es,se,nee obtained. Wewilll discuss tbis :subject inmore detail in, the Part. When the Cbi in, any of your' organs is not in, its normal state, you. If it. Na,tul",aIly, each of us is a lil'ttle bit di. That is why the dcetor will usually ask "how d! In the Ch:inell8 :marti,al,BrtB, the exhale' is generally used "to i,.

    When you are exclt,ed and happ'y, your' body is Yang'. In ,addition, as we discussed in the previaus :section,. Finally, the Shen" whicb is relatedte the Chi" can also be clas'sified as, Yang or 'Yin based Ion its origin. Burne people think that, Chi is o,rgood quality when it is 'neither too Yinnol' too Yang'. However, they are WTOD;g'. When Chl is neither too Yin. It is a qnantita:tive :s;tatemen,tratber than a qualitative one. The, quality gf' Chi 'refers to its, purity, ,BB, w',ellas its eontents.

    This, quality ,depends on where and how the Chi originated,. Within, the' human body, Chi Kung prAc. For example, when Chi ,that is, Impure or of POD,t" quality circulates in the human body, it may cause beat in the body and organs, and, make the body ton Yang. The ,quality of this Chi is dirty" and :no'Dunifrbrm" like water which has, been polluted, When this, Chi gO! The' l'ev,el,o. For' this the reason, diet is g, part of Chi Kuu:g practice.

    Chi aDd Bio They only knew from aeupuneture "that when a ,needle WiUI inserte,d into the acupuncture cavities, :Ioma kind of energy other' than heat was pmdueed 'which often caused a :shock 'or a tickling sensatien, It was, not until the last few decade's, when the Chinese: people were 'more B,cquain,ted, with eleetroma,gnetic science, that tbey began 'to recognize ,that this ,energy circulating In the body"whicb they called Chi, might be ,the 'same 'thi,ng aa what t'o,d.

    CIv,e materia I 8:, an d' 1 rorms a I"'. Countless experimenta have been cOD. Tbey attach, a magnet t-o the 8,kin over a cavity and leave it tbere for ,a, period. The magnetic 'ti,eld gradually affects the Chi cir'culatio,D in tha't, channel Altem,stiv,ely, they lnsert needles into c,avitiles and th,en run an electric current t,hMugh the needle. In' add. Many bioele'ctric related reports have been publisbed, and frequently the results are J. For example during tbe electro,physiological research of the ',8, several investigators discovered that bones are pie soeleetrie; that is, when, tbey are stressed, mechanical energy is.

    Becker has done important work in this tiel'd. It is pre,sently believed that food and air are the fuel which generates the electricity in the, body. All of these batterie,stogether' form the human electromagnetic field. If this cireUIati'on of electricity stops, you die, But bioelectric energy not only maintain's life, it is, also res!

    Furthermore, much of the research on the body's electrical fieJd For example, Dr.. Beeker repurtsthat the. Many of these '. Huebner, Eut West, Journal, June M,d Gary Selden. William ,Jounud, June A report by Albert LI. Huebner states: "These demlonstra.. Another frequen,tly reported phenemenon is that when ,8 Chi Kung praetitioner has 'reached a high leve! I of development, a, bel,o would appear behind andlo'r around his head during meditation.

    This is commonly seen in p,ainting. Whe'n a, person has cultivated his Chi electricity to a high level, the Chi may be led to accumulate in thehead, This, Chi may then interact 'with 'the oxygen moleeuleain the air" ,and ionize them,. How actually doas the mind generate an EMF electromagn. Bow 'can we l"ea.. You can see that the future of Chi Kun,g' and bioelectric 'science is a challe'nging and ex:citin;g one.

    If' Chi is the same thing as what is now' being called bioelectricityl' which Westem medical science iSI ju'st d. In thi:s seetien, I 'would like to raise U. The Electromapeti,eField, S,ince' we and Earth's, magnetic. Whe,n a piece of ,steel is placed inside a me,petie Bel! Thus" our' firs,t task is to locate the pole,s of the: human ,magnet,.

    Evezybndy knows that there is a 'magnetic field in ,tbe Earth. The "nerth" pole oftbis har magnet is the, 'north.. Furthermore, we have, defined the 'pole of theEartb tow,ardwhi,cb a magnet's 'north pole points ias the Earth', "Magnetic, 'North Pole' 'while' the other end is the Earth's, nMap:etic. South P'ole. We still do not kn,ow how the Earth's magnetic field was formed. This conflicts with h. In other 'words, the actual ,magnertie. Once you have ,assimilated these oo,n,cepts, consider :y'om bod.

    Since your body's magnetic -li,eld is formed under the 'influen,ee or the E,artb",s magnetic field,. For' example" it you are standing in the -. This means that if you are in tbe Nort. This prob,a'bly me-ans tha. Ass,umiDg' that you are in the Northem Hemisphere, your 'head, should be ,B,south pOlle while your abdomen is, a north pole' Figure 4-,5.

    ExeIwling' all Qithet facto,rs su,ch 8S, location" weather, eb! This may be what th,e Chinese 'mean by "'Original E,ssenc-e. A human magnet in the Northern Hemisphere that when you place high quality reftned steel, in a magnetic fie'ld" the magnet formed 'w,iD have strOD:ger magnetic field than if you had. Since this m,agnet irsstronger, the magnetic energy WiU last longer. Similarly, if you received high quality Original ESBlenoefrom Ylour parente, your' body's maenetic 'field will 'be Istr'ong; and the Chi or eleetrieal energy cir,culating in your body win be strong and smooth.

    This means that your vitality will be great, and you will probably have a long and healthy life. If this line of reasoning is valid, tbenwe are abl1e to explain something which has been confusin,g' Chi Kung metiitato,rs,. Hemisphere " when 18 person meditates facing south he is be able to obtain, a s,trongler Chi Ro,w and is able to balance his ICbi more quickly than if be were facing another direction. Facing south lines, up the ingoming 'en,8I"gy with the liSman Circulation" of energy down the center of the front of the body and up the spine.

    Sinee the front of the body is Yin,! Another possible explanation is, related to 'the fact that we tend to turn and look at people who are talking 'to us as if this let us hear. Since, YOUI" mind bas a considerable influence on your' body's, energy, facing i-om tbe :Lneomlng ener,gy may also help you to. However, if y;ou eitee'p,s,ittmg up, you should again [B,ca Boutb,.

    These "'magnetic. Ind,eed, the twa ,are merely differ-ent aspects of the same force,. Howevisr,whenever any extra energy is, generated either wide lor' outside oftms fiel,d"the field mUno, monger 'be B,ooady; ,and an electrical CUlTen. D8 that if there is, no energy soUm! S'm L This energy builds up in your solar plexus" and theD.

    One end or each channel is t,berefore positiwe; and 'the other end n,elative. If an a. H ,e mus t 1m''. O'D l' C:lrcU. Possibly thefaillurea are due: '00 'the: acupun,ctmiB,t"s :no,t taki,ng ,orientation or the magnets into account. It bas been proposed that, there is another ,cycle generated by the moon's influence, on the W,! If you wish 'to study the human electromagnetic fiel'd you must also taJt. Let us consider it the north pole: of the human magnetic ,fi'eld since the ,sn'B,rgy origin,atee tbere. The 'Dorth pole. In his 're:port o'n biomagneties, Richard Leviton states: "One magnet pr,actitioneT; bot,h a physi,cian and a researcher, is Dr.

    Magneti'c 'energy is nature's ene,f,gy in , perfect balance. Each of a magnet's two poles bas a diffe. In r'eg l'l'lds,to the two pole,s", I. You m. Hemispbere of the Earth. The: im'plication" bowev'er, is that people in the Southe:rD ,Hemisphere bave their magnetic pole's reviersed from how they are in ,tbe 'Northe,rn. D'Oes, this. De 'peDp,le in the Soutbe'm. In addition to, eocpll! In the past we have only been. Electricit,Y is main electrical c'hBDll.

    These cavities are the ga. M'F, the electrie poten'tisl in the circuit will be the aame throughout, and an electric current 'will not occur. The aameprinciple ap'plies to your' body's electrical eireuit, Gener:a. Inn llnd ths m,OOD.. Alte:rnativel,JI you may exp,ose y,o'ur body to radioactive area or even an electromagnetic field w'bl:ch can influence' the electrica.

    From the conversion of food and air e,B8,ence.

    Confucius Institute at Alfred University - News

    Wbenev,er food and air are taken in, 'they are conve,rted into biom. Je:ctric ,energy. This Increase of' the ,electricity will generate EMF' for eireulation.. From exercise, Whenev'e. It might n,ot be easy for' the aver:agl: person to underatand this eOllcept"howeveir', itf yo'u understand that your thinking is able t-o atfe,ct the 'bod:y"sC. For example, -. In Chinese medieine this would be IcaUed ,Chi s:tagnati,on. Iimay poss,ih,]y also convert the!

    If you mn. Huebner: "In ,E. A salamander' won't r,egensr,ate its limb if the s,tump has become covered with skin ,pr'e:sumab,ly becaus'e 'this blocks, the 'eurrsnt 'o,f injury'known til' flJ.. Dr" Cynthia IUingvlorth of Sheffield found 'that if a ehild's fingerti.