Perhaps some members of the community might provide child care for children of the area while their parents are at work, all day or just after school. Reasonable homogeneity of status to facilitate everything but embedded in a larger community to allow interactions with other age groups and other economic levels. There is much discussion about "age ghettos," but many old people prefer to be able to get away from the noise and confusion of modern life. Most like occasional contact with their own grandchildren. Some might want to run a day-care nursery, but again, the emphasis must be on self-determination, not predetermination.
The basic design tends to determine some general level of cost, however, and hence of the affluence of the average member. I would personally opt for a level that is sufficiently modest so that middle-income children with dependent parents would be willing to pay to house them there. A maintained age spread , which means starting with an even distribution from age 55 up but then encouraging mostly the younger old to join so that there are always younger people providing more of the services and building up their community credit for when they may need more help than they can give.
Two-generation families would also be welcome, however. A major reason for insisting that all features must be attractive is that otherwise people will not move to the community until they become desperate, and it could become one more dismal nursing home, assembling all those who need help. A size sufficient to allow a real community to develop, diverse talents to be shared, and "markets" to set the "wages" for services to others and to the community in the new currency.
The perils of the too-small community were dramatically described by Nathaniel Hawthorne after his brief experience at Brook Farm: "an unfriendly state of feeling could not occur between any two members, without the whole society being more or less commoted and made uncomfortable thereby. There need to be at least several hundred people in such a community, but there is also an upper limit beyond which it is difficult to develop warm friendship groups, even subgroups, or for the community to govern itself. Homelike living quarters, but with the capacity to introduce special equipment to facilitate remaining there even when disabled or ill.
A combination of equipment for self-care and easy communication and accessibility for calling for help is obviously needed. Home health care is generally a myth for those living alone, even in apartments, because although they need care only occasionally, it is economically and physically inefficient to provide it. Often, simple emergency help for a few minutes is all that is needed, and such help can be easily provided by someone close at hand, often requiring little skill.
Having people nearby without the developed networks and support arrangements, helps little. A recent study of the impact of the ending of a home help service indicated little effect, prompting the conclusion that the service had not provided the personal care that is the most burdensome and most time-specific Hooyman, The crucial qualities of flexibility and adaptability , particularly to minimize the need to move again. Each living unit should have wide doors and be capable of having hoists added to facilitate getting into and out of a bed or a wheelchair, ways of allowing the visual monitoring of activities when necessary through windows or by TV, and the delivery of meals.
It should be possible to advertise that people would never have to move again studies in England have shown that is what happens even when different levels of care are provided for in different projects. There are some requirements that make it unlikely that the easy conversion of older structures would suffice. Overall, it would be difficult to provide hierarchies of shared space—for example, some shared locally by 4 to 12 families, some by larger groups or the whole community, and some by smaller groups from the whole community.
It would be difficult to provide both privacy and access to the outside and one's car and also easy access without going out in the wind and rain and cold to most of the other members of the community. In addition, common space that is protected from outsiders but easily visible by insiders so that those who need it could be kept under observation without that burden falling on one person is impossible in older areas of either low or high density.
At the level of design of individual spaces, ceilings strong enough to allow the installation of pulleys so that people can be moved between bed and wheelchair and toilet without much main strength and doorways and spaces that allow such maneuvering could be designed inexpensively in new areas, but they would be very difficult to install in older ones.
In particular, to avoid the need for moving to other quarters, one would want the capability of space adaptation without the investment of fitting out every space for every contingency. There is ample evidence that moving is difficult for the elderly and will be resisted and that providing several stages of residence does not work—people tend to stay wherever they first move.
Furthermore, it seems likely that friendship groups will develop, and people may want to live near their friends sharing the small-group spaces with them , rather then near others with the same level of handicaps. There may, of course, be some who require a kind of segregation to avoid disturbing others, and the community would have to solve such problems as they arose. There can also be shared equipment, including not just wheelchairs and hospital beds and pulleys but such items as tools, videotapes, and sports equipment.
Here, again, many problems may arise as anyone knows who has tried to share woodworking tools with people who never sharpen anything ; but again, one of the productive activities such communities would induce is the solving of this kind of problem. There are, after all, real economies in sharing things that are used only occasionally and advantages in specialization—"paying" skilled perfectionists who will keep the planes sharp in the woodworking shop. Is there no way we can make do with arrangements that allow people to stay where they are?
Or could we start with existing retirement communities and attempt to work just on the economic and organizational arrangements? I do not believe there is much promise in the first of these alternatives, however appealing it may seem. The problems of communication and transportation are just too great to overcome. We might consider, in a few of the more appropriate places in which older people are concentrated, trying the other environmental changes, particularly the economic ones.
Indeed, newspapers have reported some attempts at recognizing community services with credits that can be used to purchase other needed services. Finally, in line with my general insistence that the people involved should make as many of their own decisions as possible, we need designs that are flexible and that allow each unique group with its backgrounds, preferences, and experiences to adapt the physical environment to its own needs. Do we need more studies of existing situations to seek out approaches that work or to know what modes of reciprocity and patterns of time use prevail in existing communities?
I suspect that what we would learn would be that existing communities have various barriers that prevent any but the most limited patterns of mutual help or other productive activities. Perhaps cataloging all of the possible barriers in their diversity would help prove our contention that we need built environments that solve all the problems at once, rather than more experiments that would continue to show that partial solutions are not much use.
It is important to keep certain distinctions in mind. Efficiency must be gained without destroying equity, which means providing for reciprocity among members and self-sufficiency for the whole community. Facilitating productive activity and opening up new possibilities is different from applying incentives or rules or penalties. All of the latter are likely to benefit many unnecessarily and punish others unfairly We are talking about new communities—not communes—with freedom, individuality preserved, and the right to be as much or as little involved in activities as one likes.
We are proposing trials by people of new possibilities, not experiments on people. And finally, we suggest the dramatic change to whole new environments but with great concern for minimizing the trauma that any change brings, particularly for older people. New environments, particularly if they are to attract people before they are desperate and ready for a nursing home, must be appealing in multiple ways and have no important drawbacks. It will be a real challenge to design them. Our only avenue is to focus on the crucial elements and hope that the first applicants will solve the problems and adapt the design to make it still better.
The only help required would be loan guarantees, some original organizing advice, and perhaps some research to report systematically and quantitatively on which problem-solving mechanisms work and not just on the particular solutions that were found. Measures of change in satisfaction would be more compelling by the addition of quantitative measures of changes in the amount of time devoted to productive activities and in the sizes of helping networks. James N. Morgan is program director and professor of economics, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.
Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Search term. Morgan The relevant literature on the relation of housing and living arrangements to the productivity of the elderly is diverse and often only marginally on target. Productivity Broadly Considered We must expand our concept of productivity to include anything that produces goods or services.
The Economic Environment We need economic arrangements that provide incentives and rewards for productive activities but that do not produce further inequities among a group that is experiencing widely diverging economic paths in any case. The Social-Organizational Environment We need social-organizational arrangements because many of the productive activities that are most likely to result are services to the community or to other individuals, both of which require information, communication, and social support mechanisms.
The Built Environment Finally, then, we come to the built environment. The following seven seem desirable: 1. Conclusion New environments, particularly if they are to attract people before they are desperate and ready for a nursing home, must be appealing in multiple ways and have no important drawbacks. References Abrams, P. Abrams, P. Abrams, R. Humphrey, and R. Altman, I. Wohlwill, editor; , and M.
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Theses - Higher Degree by Research
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Differentiating it from the standard 3 Series models, the exterior of the M3 wears new bodywork, including a new front fascia, flared quarter panels front and rear , a new rear valance and a unique hood with a subtle power bulge — the hood and doors are made from aluminum, to save weight. Overhead, the exterior of the roof is offered in lightweight carbon fiber that helps lower the center of gravity, a first for the M3 Sedan. The interior has been treated to the typical M suite of upgrades, including a wondrously thick three-spoke steering wheel, M instrument cluster, M sport bucket seats driver and front passenger , M dead pedal and the M transmission shifter.
That said, I must profess that the near-white leather of my test car is a bit unmanageable, especially considering that it is a four-door insinuating it could serve some family duty , but it appears classy with the contrasting stitching and carbon-fiber trim. Those choosing the M3 Sedan over the M4 Coupe will be able to take advantage of the very useable rear bench, which seats three. But, as is often the case, BMW brought a handful of identically prepared models to the launch in Portugal, and each was very heavily optioned.
Without question, the test car was ridiculously optioned. As with the M4 Coupe, the M3 Sedan driver is faced with a smorgasbord of choices before driving off. The standard i sedan is no slouch, sprinting to 60 mph in about five seconds flat when optioned with the eight-speed automatic transmission, yet the M3 with the seven-speed dual clutch gearbox takes it to a whole new level. The twin-turbocharged S55 spools up quicker than the single-turbo N55, and despite a pound weight penalty beefy high-performance components add mass , the M car reaches the same benchmark about 1.
All of those figures seem entirely believable, especially in real-world driving. Slam the gas pedal to its stops and the sedan launches off the line with minimal turbo lag. The transmission snaps off each of its gears automatically, with the console mounted shifter or via the steering wheel-mounted paddles. Over two days of driving, on and off track, I never once cursed it for putting me in the incorrect gear, but I confess to frequently wishing that I was driving a manual. Housing Studies, 21 3 , Households and housing: choice and outcomes, In the Housing Market.
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