Aspra Calabria (Viaggio in Calabria) (Italian Edition)

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Because of the regular use of heat, we often have dry hair in the winter. You should know if he or she is the one after three visits. Most salons offer free consultations; I highly suggest taking advantage of that to make sure you and your new stylist are on the same page. She cut off her hair in and it launched her career — the first supermodel to do this!

She is from my hometown of St. I absolutely love her look — feminine and timeless. Her hair is so effortlessly sexy and soft. Horror Story: I was cutting the hair of a New York Yankees player and had absolutely no idea who he was. I proceeded to ask him if he would be checking out the game while he was in town, and another client yelled that he would not only be attending but playing in it! I was embarrassed, but he was a very good sport about it!

My favourite brush is my Triomphe by Jean-Pierre. My favourite comb is my Orange YS Park cutting comb. My favourite product line is Sebastian. I eat, breathe and sleep Sebastian. The one product I cannot live without is their dark oil. I use it on absolutely everyone. My father, Santo Morrone, who is celebrating 50 years in business in the same community on Dufferin Street, where I have the honour to work alongside him everyday. Makeup by Fatima Muniz Photos by Babak. Keep your hair and scalp moisturized. Choosing a hairstylist who is passionate is key — one who will advise you and give you your very own tailored haircut and style.

When competing for the world championships in Frankfurt, Germany in , we flooded the hotel room washing colour off the model. Then, we were forced to work in the hotel hallway at two in the morning because the lighting was better than in our room. It was a nightmare. My proudest win was a gold medal in Korea at Hairworld Preparing for hair competitions is what made me a hair-whisperer.

The long hours of moving and blow-drying hair, creating flawless styles and colours is truly a discipline. A lot of my work is clean and soft because of my training, and I now coach and pay it forward to future stylists. Let some of the highlights come through. After blow-drying and applying hairspray throughout your hair, wrap only the middle of the hair shaft one and a half times around a hot rod any cylindrical hair iron.

Let cool, then work through with hands for a relaxed look, and brush for a classic feel. Look for a stylist who is trendy, current, busy and quick. Experience and speed go hand in hand. All down, volume in roots with soft or deep waves, leaving hair shiny and flowing. Or, up and natural-looking and flowing, sculpted to hold while still looking soft. I dislike the flat, sideswept bang leading to a pile of curls or busy, loose barrel curls in the back.

I want to ban this look. I think all women should experiment and try different looks. Horror Story: Years ago, my client came in with dark brown hair and said she wanted highlights. When I started to check the foils, her hair was neon orange. After reapplying bleach and waiting an hour, she finally confessed that she had applied a henna, then covered it with two drugstore hair dyes.

It was a good thing she told the truth; there was no way I could remove henna or drugstore colour in a hurry. I am a product junkie; every product has a purpose. Nioxin is formulated to treat the scalp and hair; a healthy scalp is important for healthy, thick hair to thrive. I apprenticed at her salon 12 years ago, and she has always supported me with everything I wanted to take on in the industry.

She taught me how to do hair! Hair Do: Learn to work with your natural texture. Low maintenance hair is essential, but you need to know what kind of hair you have in order to work with it. Book an appointment with your stylist and ask questions. I recommend going in for a consultation before committing to a new hairstylist since you will be spending a lot of time in their chair.

Favourite Bridal Hair-Do: Textured and soft, a more polished version of yourself. She has a head full of extensions, but they look SO natural and her hair is always amazing and effortless looking. Horror Story: I flew to work on a job in Peru, and the airline lost my luggage with my tools in it! The couple made it official in front of 20 of their closest relatives and friends. There is so much history there for me.

If they were willing to follow us to Italy for our big day, then nothing was stopping us! Sapevamo che era la cosa giusta. The first toast as husband and wife upon arriving at the reception venue: Maxluxury Villa in Peschici. Il primo brindisi come marito e moglie, fatto al loro arrivo alla sala di ricevimento: Maxluxury Villa a Peschici.

It created this incredible chemistry before the big day. It felt like everyone knew each other forever. Era come se tutti si conoscessero da sempre. It would seem fate worked very hard to join together newlyweds Steve and Taryn Giovinazzo. Married on July 28, , they not only lived steps away from each other and shared mutual friends, but were also both featured in Panoram Italia magazine.

Taryn appeared in the JuneJuly issue while Steve was in the July edition. The next words that came out of his mouth confirmed that we were meant to be. I was featured in the same magazine! Le successive parole che uscirono dalla sua bocca confermarono che eravamo destinati a stare nsieme. Sono stato menzionato nella stessa rivista! On December 31, , Ida and 6 of her children came to Toronto to meet Ernesto and the eldest son, Raffaele, who had immigrated to Canada two years prior.

Today, at 94 and 90, Ernesto and Ida live a happy and family-filled life in their home in Woodbridge, Ontario. Their family has grown impressively, with 19 grandchildren and 16 great-grandchildren. They love to garden, make salumi, and spend their days surrounded by family.

Io provo a farlo nel mio lavoro. Ero fuori l'altro giorno e mi andava di prendere un gelato. Un signore in fila disse al cassiere: "Prendo anche io un gelato". I try to do this in my own work. I create library programs that bring people together where they not only have the opportunity to learn and socialize but receive kindness, inspiring each other to later do the same in the world. I was out the other day and felt like getting some ice cream. I have this intense love for my two kids that overflows into the world.

As much as my children? Ecco spiegato come posso amare te, la tua famiglia, le altre persone intorno a noi. Provo un intenso amore per i miei due figli, tanto da manifestarlo a tutto il mondo. Posso amare qualcuno che non ho mai incontrato? Tanto quanto i miei figli? Naturalmente, come musicista, credo anche che la musica abbia il potere di guarire. Bugs Bunny si avvicina con un violino e inizia a suonare qualcosa di Beethoven.

La musica ha il potere di calmare la bestia feroce. Love can definitely change the world. I think it would make it a lot calmer and allow people to react with a serious, more focused emotion as opposed to getting erratic, noisy and combative.

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Bugs Bunny gets near him with a violin and starts playing something from Beethoven. Music does soothe the savage beast. Situated on a picturesque campus in Mississauga, Ontario, the school derives inspiration from its venerated founders, the Felician Sisters and the Basilian Fathers. As a graduate from the class of , Olivia Morrone embodies this spirit. In addition to championing academic excellence, the progressive curriculum emphasizes 21st century competencies, so students are equipped to confront and resolve complex issues in a rapidly-changing and globalized world. An emphasis is also placed on athletics, arts, outdoor education, co-curricular activities and initiatives such as innovative forensics, mini-medical programs, a competitive robotics team and a plethora of leadership experiences, that all play an essential role in growth and development.

Exposing each and every student to innumerable possibilities and exciting opportunities, while igniting their passion and guiding them to discover their potential are essential to their success according to Marilena Tesoro, Head of School. The following month, she was hired by Parsons Inc. The confidence and female leadership that was instilled in me allowed me to branch out, gain respect and overcome adversities. Working in a maledominated field never intimidated me. I knew I could do just as good of a job and I knew I was just as smart.

I took every new opportunity as a new challenge. She graduated with an Honours Bachelor of Health and Disease with minors in Immunology and Bioethics from the University of Toronto in , in addition to a certificate in Business Management from Ryerson University in I feel incredibly blessed, so I want to give these same experiences and opportunities in education to girls all over the world. An HNMCS education inspires girls who turn into motivated, strong and independent women changing the world for the better.

It is important to live with courage and hope in uncertain times. For our students, this manifests itself in not only illuminating their own light within, but becoming beacons of light to others in their own communities and around the world. When business meets pleasure What happens when you mix politics, business and law?

According to new lawyer and entrepreneur Vincenzo Mazza you get three areas that marry well. Mazza, 27, is a third-generation Italian-Canadian whose grandparents and parents immigrated to London, Ontario from Curinga, Calabria. It had many low-income immigrant families like mine, below-average schools and lots of poverty and crime.

Tropea - Calabria - Italia

Still, I viewed education as an equalizer, and it in fact was. Prior to earning both Canadian and U. Today, Mazza specializes in class action lawsuits wherein parties with a similar problem launch a lawsuit together. However, because I believe that society is at its fullest and fairest when businesses and government are held accountable, I am in the process of moving from defending class actions to prosecuting them. Che cosa succede quando mischi la politica, gli affari e la legge? Secondo il neo-avvocato e imprenditore Vincenzo Mazza si tratta di tre aree che si sposano bene.

For almost Come se le sue giornate non fossero abbastanza lunghe, le sue serate sono 10 years, Mazza has managed an international nightclub business with locaaltrettanto piene. He has also been a special advisor on several major business projdi espandersi a Toronto. Gestire un nightclub o costruire un values. Culinary bere e condividere mi affascina. Sharing and service to che faccio. Passionate campi della sua vita. He is currently a board a questo sport. Italian seniors take their passeggiata to shopping centres Sensible walking shoes are essential accessories on weekday mornings at Greater Toronto Area malls.

There is no public art or architecture. There are no temples for consumption. This interaction among their peers is the reason they return each day. When Active Aging Canada first developed its mall-walking program, Mall Movers, it conducted research on how to encourage seniors to start exercising.

And I see some Italians who I know. Scarpe da ginnastica comode sono accessori indispensabili nei centri commerciali della Greater Toronto Area nelle mattinate infrasettimanali. Ad indossarle sono gli anziani italo-canadesi dai capelli brizzolati. In perfetto stile nordamericano, se ne vanno a spasso, socializzano e trascorrono il tempo insieme durante la loro consueta passeggiata. Ma non fa niente. Nei centri commerciali della GTA, calabresi, siciliani, abruzzesi e friulani camminano tutti fianco a fianco.

Per creare Mall Movers, un programma volto ad incoraggiare le passeggiate nei centri commerciali, Active Aging Canada ha condotto delle ricerche per capire come incentivare gli anziani a fare movimento. A few decades back he played soccer and ran six miles an evening. They speak Italian, English and Italiese in equal parts. Some, more sprite than others, move with impressive agility. It has less impact on the joints than running, a particularly important advantage for the elderly or those with cardiovascular conditions, points out John A.

Sawdon, the public education and special projects director at Cardiac Health Foundation of Canada. Gianfelice, nato a Sonnino, Latina, nella regione Lazio, dice di essere sempre stato un tipo attivo. Tanti anni fa giocava a calcio e correva per sei miglia tutte le sere. Non sorprende quindi che ancora oggi gli italiani si facciano compagnia a vicenda e che vogliano instaurare relazioni. Altri arrancano per via dei dolori al ginocchio o di una fastidiosissima anca che li tormenta adesso dopo decenni passati ad asfaltare strade o a costruire stipiti di porte.

Dovunque vadano, sono sulla buona strada. Ha un impatto minore sulle articolazioni rispetto alla corsa, un vantaggio particolarmente significativo per gli anziani o per chi soffre di malattie legate al cuore, fa notare John A. Sawdon, direttore della pubblica educazione e dei progetti speciali presso la Cardiac Health Foundation of Canada. So you want to be Italian? In this issue, Panoram Italia spoke with one such admirer: Chris Martin.

From a military family with roots in the Maritimes, he was born in Lahr, Germany, while his father was serving in the Canadian Armed Forces. He moved to Toronto in and is the director of marketing for a large telecommunications company. When did you first become enamoured of all things Italian and why? It features a beautiful downtown with shops and restaurants situated at the edge of a cliff that overlooks a stunning beach and the pristine waters of the sea.

If you could live in an Italian city, which would you choose and why? It would have to be Tropea. Complete this statement: Italy is. Where food, drink, art and culture live in harmony with some of the best landscapes and architecture the world has to offer. Quindi, vuoi essere italiano?

In questa uscita, Panoram Italia ha fatto due chiacchiere con uno di questi ammiratori: Chris Martin. Sono stato anche a Tropea, che si trova sulla costa orientale della Calabria. Un vero piacere per i sensi. Tropea, senza dubbio. Italians in Italy have a fashionable elegance about them, which sets them apart. Ebooks and Manuals

How would you describe life with an Italian-Canadian designer, and how has this influenced you? My life is complete — literally. Rosa has given me an immensely elevated appreciation for art, culture and design while simultaneously opening me up to become a warmer, empathetic and understanding partner. I dress better, look better and feel better! Plus, the clothing in my closet is colour blocked! The food, the food, the food!

Making sauce every September is one of my favourite times of the year. We gather outside as a family, harvest the fresh tomatoes as if they were precious gems and, within a few hours, we have jars of sauce to last the entire year. How well do you speak Italian? I understand far more than I can speak. Our Vespa, of course! We own a black Vespa ET2 Chic and elegant, it embodies classic Italian design. Come descriveresti la vita con una designer italo-canadese, e in che modo ne sei stato influenzato?

In che modo la vena creativa per la moda di Rosa e la sua impeccabile estetica del design in stile italiano ti hanno contagiato? Mi vesto meglio, ho un aspetto migliore e mi sento meglio! Il cibo, il cibo, il cibo! La nostra Vespa, ovviamente! Abbiamo una Vespa ET2 50 nera. Helping his dad at the shop on Saturdays, he learned first-hand how to treat customers.

Our core values are the same — being open, dependable and connected to each other and to our customers. Ogni sabato, quando aiutava il padre in negozio, ha imparato in prima persona come trattare i clienti. I nostri valori di base sono i medesimi — essere trasparenti, affidabili, in sintonia tra di noi e con i nostri clienti. Why did you choose a career in banking? Growing up in the barber shop and in a close-knit Italian family and ethnic community, I knew I wanted to be around people and to help them.

Clients tell us about their dreams and we help make them happen. Cambiamo la vita della gente. I clienti ci raccontano i loro sogni e noi li aiutiamo a realizzarli. Why HSBC? The sacrifices my family made when they first came to Canada — moving abroad, finding work, sending money back home — are the same kinds of sacrifices I hear about from our clients at HSBC. While we provide many of the same products as a domestic bank, no one is better placed to help individuals with a global outlook or Canadian companies that do business internationally.

I sacrifici che la mia famiglia ha fatto quando sono venuti per la prima volta in Canada - trasferirsi all'estero, trovare lavoro, inviare denaro a casa - sono gli stessi tipi di sacrifici che sento dai nostri clienti di HSBC. E per loro, possiamo fare cose che le altre banche non possono! In the past, our credit card products were exclusive to HSBC customers.

Now, we are opening our doors to clients with travel needs who can benefit from this world-class product. In passato, i nostri prodotti legati alle carte di credito venivano offerti esclusivamente ai clienti di HSBC. What makes it unique? It really is everything a travel card should be! Who is the card ideal for? This card is the perfect companion for the travel enthusiast.

When I went to Italy, I put everything on my card because I knew it would take care of everything. With no FX fees and extensive insurance coverage, I was able to concentrate on what really mattered - my family abroad. Che cosa la rende unica? More travel rewards and benefits. Less hassles. Anytime, anywhere. Only the exchange rate will apply. Visit hsbc. Terms and conditions apply. Used pursuant to license. As a third-generation Italian, I still enjoy making biscotti, homemade pasta and preparing tomatoes with the family.

Who is your role model? My parents Most important family value: Spending time with each other and taking care of one another What does Panoram Italia represent to you? It represents the Italian-Canadian experiences in our city and how we still maintain aspects of our heritage. Lamb Realty Inc. My parents. Italian-Canadian What does Panoram Italia represent to you?

A way to effectively showcase all the incredible things Italian-Canadians are doing in the community Best memory growing up ItalianCanadian: Impossible to pick one but any event that had to do with faith, family and food. The newest and most innovative espresso machine from Saeco. Choose from 15 types of coffee drinks with a touch of a button on our most advanced touch screen display. This super automatic espresso machine can even make two cups of coffee drinks at once, including cappuccinos. We often forget to take time out of our busy lives to check in with our loved ones and appreciate the time we spend with them.

My mother. Most important family value: Taking pride in the work you do and appreciating the time you spend with your family What does Panoram Italia represent to you? It is also a great way to practice your Italian! Best memory growing up ItalianCanadian: Making sugo every summer with all my cousins. Sales and Service to Restaurants - Commercial and Residential customers for over 60 years. Authorized Saeco Sales and Service Depot. The Italian influencers to follow Thanks to Instagram, Facebook and Pinterest, the latest and greatest information in fashion is only a click away.

Grazie a Instagram, Facebook e Pinterest, le ultime e migliori notizie in fatto di moda sono a portata di click. Chiara Ferragni chiaraferragni theblondesalad www. Over 15 million followers on Instagram tuned into her wedding in Noto, Sicily, which was entirely funded by brand sponsorships, including a free chartered flight by Alitalia for her nearest and dearest, and not one but two custom Dior gowns. Chiara Ferragni, baciata dalla genetica, ha cominciato il suo impero The Blonde Salad come passatempo. Lorenzo Liverani liveranilorenzo www. His sumptuous photoshoot-style posts around the world marry wanderlust with designer desires.

I suoi magnifici post di servizi fotografici in giro per il mondo creano un connubio tra voglia di viaggiare e voglia di stile. Her posts range from breakfasts in bed in Parisian hotels to her impossibly perfect wedding on Lake Como donning a custom Elie Saab gown. I suoi post spaziano dalle colazioni a letto negli hotel parigini al suo matrimonio impeccabile sul lago di Como dove sfoggia un abito su misura di Elie Saab.

La ragazza ha anche fiuto per gli affari — ha cominciato la sua carriera gestendo il proprio marchio in una boutique in Piazza Vittorio a Torino, per poi continuare a scrivere per la rivista Grazia. Miriam Leone mirimeo leonemiriam This Italian knockout and former Miss Italia counts close to , followers on Instagram and is one of the hottest actresses Italy has to offer. She is one of the stars of the hit Italian drama series , which recounts the days of Mani Pulite that brought down many high-profile members of Italian government and led to the rise of Silvio Berlusconi.

Bellezza italiana e Miss Italia nel conta quasi Occupa un posto in prima fila alle sue sfilate e presenzia agli eventi esclusivi del marchio. Italian born. Canadian made. Over the last 40 years, the Ferri family has been dedicated to delivering the ultimate in sales, customer service, and employee satisfaction.

Ferri Automotive. For us, passion for automotive excellence is a family affair. Villa Charities Visioning Project Comes to an End Villa Charities is coming to the end of its extensive community-wide engagement project. The Villa Charities Visioning Project began in April , with an initial visioning exercise where Directors of Villa Charities and each Affiliate met to outline what they considered their key priorities for the organization looking forward. A comprehensive final report summarizing the findings from the visioning sessions will be shared with our stakeholders and made available to the public.

For more information on the Villa Charities Visioning Project, visit villacharities. Over people participated in the series of 12 visioning sessions that were held for numerous constituent groups, including the local and Italian communities, young adults, seniors, cultural industry leaders, the long-term care community and health care sector.

We would like to express our thanks to everyone who participated in the Villa Charities Visioning Project. We have crafted an inspired culinary selection that highlights fresh, seasonal ingredients in delicious and authentic Italian dishes. Visit us today and try some of our latest selections! For reservations: villacharities. For almost 50 years across the GTA, Villa Charities has provided culturally sensitive long-term care for seniors and offered educational and cultural programs in music, dance, visual arts, culinary arts, athletics, and much more.


Since its inception, Villa Charities Foundation has been raising funds in support of Villa Charities, helping to ensure their unique brand of highquality, culturally sensitive programs and services can continue to serve the community. Visit villacharities. Columbus Centre School of Music Registration for piano, vocal, violin, guitar, drums, flute Winter Term begins January 7, To register for classes ext.

Consisting of smaller parallel mountain chains, the Apennines extend 1, km along the length of the peninsula. In the northwest they join with the Ligurian Alps at Altare, and in the southwest they end at Reggio di Calabria, the coastal city at the toe of the boot. The soaring peaks and rolling meadows are spectacular, but it is the biological and cultural diversity that really make these mountains special. Delicious cheeses, ham, honey, vegetables and fruits are produced using time-honoured methods.

Beech groves, oak stands, chestnut trees, vineyards, olive groves and pastures filled with cows and sheep are the backdrop for everyday life. Intent on preserving this ecological equilibrium is Rewilding Central Apennines, a subgroup of Rewilding Europe, a non-profit wildlife conservation initiative that was launched in Populations of Marsican bears, grey wolves, red deer and golden eagles are gradually starting to. Gli Appennini, costituiti da piccole catene montuose parallele, si estendono per 1. Formaggi squisiti, prosciutto, miele, ortaggi e frutta vengono prodotti secondo metodi radicati nel tempo.

Faggeti, querce, castagni, vigneti, uliveti e ricchi pascoli di mucche e pecore fanno da scenario alla vita quotidiana. Le popolazioni di orsi marsicani, di lupi grigi, del cervo e delle aquile reali stanno gradualmente aumentando nelle zone. The bears are only found here and are original residents of these lands. The organization is working hard to protect the remaining 50 to 60 bears, nurture respect for the animals, decrease human-bear conflicts and eventually increase their numbers. Another remarkable recovery has been taking place in Monte Sibillini National Park, where conservation efforts have brought back the Apennine Chamois, a small mountain goat-like creature that was facing extinction 20 years ago.

Covering the Tuscan-Emilian Apennine ridge from Passo della Cisa to Passo delle Forbici, the reserve marks the geographical and climatic boundary between continental and Mediterranean Europe. The permanent population of around , inhabitants in the transition area swells in the summer by almost 70, tourists and second-home owners. Natural beauty, rare flora and fauna and a time-honored way of life make it easy to embrace the wild heart of Italy.

Questi orsi si trovano solamente qui e sono autoctoni di queste terre. In estate, alla popolazione permanente di circa From my own ancestral village atop Monte Cairo — an isolated outlier, an orphan summit — the Apennines are often cloaked in clouds and mist. Distance is an optical illusion.

They feel. In Orvieto, with its labyrinthine maze of natural tunnels and caves, I drank gallons of world-famous golden-yellow wine. At a fishing village on the Adriatic flank of the Apennines, I found a community torn apart by a winning lottery ticket. Traditionally, a hundred local residents would contribute every week to a shared batch of tickets for the state lottery. Then — O Dio — a miracle! Sembra quasi di poterli … abbracciare. E sono lussureggianti, rigogliosi di foreste e distese erbose, punteggiati da abeti bianchi e castagni, persino tartufi, digradanti verso fertili vallate.

A Orvieto con i suoi labirinti di gallerie e grotte naturali, ho bevuto litri del vino bianco giallo- dorato famoso in tutto il mondo. Poi — Oh Dio! Chi, proprio quella settimana, non aveva partecipato alla scommessa, era furioso per essere stato escluso dalla vincita. The meat-based dishes feature spit-roasted or barbecued lamb, "cif e ciaf", stew, "casce e ova" and "monte-forte".

At Bojano they serve "firefly trout", at Guardialfiera chicken cooked in clay. Termoli's specialties are stuffed angler fish, cro? To complete the products of Molise there are various types of preserved meats: soppressa, capocolla, muscisca and ventricina. The typical cakes are mostly prepared at the time of religious festivals: cicerchiata at Christmas; pigna, casciatelli and fiadoni at Easter; sfringelli and calcioni for the feast of Saint Joseph.

The locally made liqueurs have a base of aromatic herbs Biferno and Matese ; the liqueur known as Milk is made of milk and punch with toasted sugar. Nocino, an excellent digestive liqueur made of fresh walnuts, is prepared at home. Sardinia is sometimes included in the "Mezzogiorno". GDP nom. It encompasses the modern regions of Basilicata, Campania, Calabria, Apulia and Molise, which lie in Italy's south, and Abruzzo which is located in central Italy.

Some would also include the most southern parts of Lazio Sora, Cassino and Gaeta districts , which historically were part of the southern kingdom. Sicily and Sardinia are often included. The term first came into use in the 18th century and is an Italian rendition of meridies Latin for 'south', because of the sun's position at midday in the northern hemisphere. It was sometimes associated with notions of poverty, illiteracy, and crime: stereotypes of the South that often persist to this day. Separating the two is the Gulf of Taranto, named after the city of Taranto, which sits at the angle between the heel and the boot itself.

It is an arm of the Ionian Sea. The rest of the southern third of the Italian peninsula is studded with smaller gulfs and inlets. On the eastern coast is the Adriatic Sea, leading into the rest of the Mediterranean through the Strait of Otranto named after the largest city on the tip of the heel. On the Adriatic, south of the "spur" of the boot, the peninsula of Monte Gargano Policastro , the Gulf of Salerno, the Gulf of Naples, and the Gulf of Gaeta are each named after a large coastal city.

Along the northern coast of the Salernitan gulf, on the south of the Sorrentine peninsula, runs the famous Amalfi Coast. Off the tip of the peninsula there is the world famous isle of Capri. The climate is classic Mediterranean K? The largest city of Southern Italy is Naples, a title it has historically maintained for centuries. Palermo would be the second largest city if one includes Sicily as part of southern Italy. After Pyrrhus of Epirus failed in his attempt to stop the spread of Roman hegemony in BC, the south fell under Roman domination and remained in such a position well into the barbarian invasions the Gladiator War is a notable suspension of imperial control.

It was held by the Byzantine Empire after the fall of Rome in the West and even the Lombards failed to consolidate it, though the centre of the south was theirs from Zotto's conquest in the final quarter of the 6th century. Amalfi, an independent republic from the 7th century until , and to a lesser extent Gaeta, Molfetta, and Trani, rivalled other Italian maritime republics in their domestic prosperity and maritime importance. Kingdom of Sicily in The borders remained virtually unchanged for the next years.

From then to the Norman conquest of the 11th century, the south of the peninsula was constantly plunged into wars between Greece, Lombardy, and the Caliphate. The Norman conquest of southern Italy completely subjugated the Lombard principalities, and overwhelmed the Byzantines from all but Naples, which ultimately gave in to Roger II in He raised the south to kingdom status in , calling it the Kingdom of Sicily.

The Normans retained harmonious control of their territory, and ran the kingdom of Sicily efficiently. However, it lasted only 64 years before the Holy Roman Emperors long-held designs on the region came to fruition. The Hohenstaufen rule ended in defeat, but the conquering French of Charles of Anjou were themselves forcibly pushed out in the event immortalized as the Sicilian Vespers. Hereafter, until the union in Spain, the kingdom was split between the principalities of Naples on the mainland and of Sicily over the island.

The Aragonese rule left its impression on Italy and the Renaissance through such figures as Alfonso the Magnanimous and the Boggie clan. With the unification of the crowns of Castile and Aragon in the late 15th century, southern Italy and Sicily ceased to have a local monarch and were ruled by viceroys appointed by the Spanish crown. It was soon exchanged with Austria for Sardinia. It became an independent kingdom for Charles of Bourbon and experienced a period of enlightenment with a local, flourishing royal court. In the French revolutionaries captured southern Italy and created the short-lived Parthenopaean Republic.

An object of irredentism and the Risorgimento, the land was conquered by Giuseppe Garibaldi and the Redshirts in and, with the north, formed the modern state of Italy. However, to those supporting the Bourbons the "northern regime" of Victor Emanuel II was "a hostile invasion which looted the treasury of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, devastated the heavily protected local industries, and reduced Naples from the fourth largest city in Europe and the capital of a kingdom to a provincial town". The Southern economy was much more agrarian and feudal than the industrial northern economy with few notable exceptions: Salerno, "the Manchester of the two Sicilies", could count in something like 10, textile workers, more than twice the textile labour of widely-known productive centers like Turin.

Because of this, the South experienced great economic difficulties resulting in massive emigration leading to a worldwide Southern Italian diaspora. Many natives also relocated to the industrial cities in northern Italy, such as Genoa, Milan and Turin. A relative process of industrialization has developed in some areas of the "Mezzogiorno" after World War II. On November 23, there was a massive earthquake that killed people and left 3, others homeless. Today, the South remains considerably less economically developed than the North, which enjoyed an "economic miracle" in the fifties and sixties.

Some Southern Italian secession movements have developed, but have gained little, if any, significant influence. Greek influence in the South was dominant until Latinization was completed by the time of the Roman Principate. Greek influences returned by the late Roman Empire, especially following the reconquests of Justinian and the Byzantine Empire.

Sicily, a cultural crossroads throughout the Middle Ages, was captured by Muslims and turned into an Emirate for a period, and via Sicily elements of progressive Islamic culture, architecture and science were introduced to Italy and Europe. The rest of the mainland was subject to a struggle of power among the Byzantines, Lombards, and Franks.


In addition, the Venetians established outposts as trade with Byzantium and the Near East increased. Until the Norman conquests of the 11th and 12th centuries much of the South followed Eastern rite Greek Christianity. The Normans and other northern rulers of the Middle Ages significantly impacted the architecture, religion and high culture of the region.

The Spanish had a major impact on the culture of the South, having ruled it for over three centuries. In recent years, Southern Italy has experienced a revival of its traditions and music, such as Neapolitan song and the Tarantella. Antonio Abate from Jan. These races have taken place each year since the 14th century. The "Cart Procession" takes place on May 25th, 26th and 27th of each year. Peter and St. The floats are covered with plaited wheat. Frances Cabrini, Nov. Lucy, Dec. Stephen, Dec. Vinchiaturo, Campobasso.

Notes: Chiesa di Santa Maria di Monteverde. Campochiaro, Campobasso, Molise. Contributed by: Courtesty of Campobasso -- Provinciale per turismo. Molise, Italy.