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Traditionally the ancient maze is a place of entrapment. By the time that Wroth composed her sonnets in the seventeenth century, the image of the labyrinth as a structure had accumulated several metaphorical meanings. In literature, the pattern of the maze, with its twisting paths, became a metaphor for psychological complexity. In religion, some medieval churches had mazes drawn on 93 94 Lady Mary Wroth the floors, and a penitent pilgrim would work his or her way through the elaborate lines to find the right path to a specific ending place, sometimes crawling on hands and knees to signify the difficult progress of the soul through earthly life.

Puritan thinkers of the english Renaissance reinterpreted the image. For Puritans, earthly experience seemed to be a series of puzzles or mazes to be negotiated by an individual, who should be guided by the inner light of faith. Given all of these metaphorical and spiritual meanings, the image can represent both a process of confusion and a product of artistry, depending, as Penelope Reed Doob has discerned, on perspective 1.

From inside, the way to proceed is confusing. From outside, the labyrinth might appear as a highly structured design. Like a labyrinth, with its enclosures and restricted paths, the sonnet form has its own formal restrictions, and Pamphilia to Amphilanthus, with its poems, is a tour de force of sonnet writing.

The italian sonnet form has fourteen lines with a two-part structure, an octave eight lines with a rhyme scheme abba abba and a sestet six lines with a varied rhyme scheme, often cd cd cd or cde cde ; the english sonnet form has three quatrains of alternating rhyme abab cdcd efef and a closing couplet gg.


Wroth demonstrated mastery of both forms in her collection, with the further impressive achievement of an embedded corona of fourteen english sonnets. However, the bloody ritual ends when Theseus arrives from Athens to enter the maze and slay the beast Ovid 8. Ariadne now enters the narrative.

Theseus escapes using this thread. Although he takes Ariadne with him, he soon abandons her. Most importantly, her persona, Pamphilia, does not escape from the labyrinth but is able to grow psychologically and spiritually from engaging with difficult, even conflicting emotions, such as jealousy and joy. Wayes are on all sids while the way i miss: if to the right hand, ther, in love i burne; Lett mee goe forward, therin danger is; if to the left, suspition hinders bliss, Lett mee turne back, shame cries i ought returne nor fainte though crosses with my fortunes kiss; Stand still is harder, allthough sure to mourne 1—8.

After the first line, the speaker sees each possible direction as a different emotional path. Then the language itself becomes a kind of labyrinth or puzzle for readers to explicate.

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The first three questions about right, forward, or left are direct, with parallel syntax that implies the logic of cause and effect if. The fourth question introduces more contorted syntax. Here Wroth exploits the poetic line breaks to create ironic meanings in diction and syntax. Does shame tell her go back? Will she confront shame if she goes back?

Does shame tell her to go forward with courage? Mary b. Just as language can create and express confusion, it can also clarify experience.

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After the confusing syntax of the second quatrain, the language of the sonnet begins to become clearer. However, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, traveile might also refer to a journey or a finished literary work OeD sb1, i 3 and ii. The opening sonnet of the corona introduces this theme about the interplay of experience and language. The thread image incorporates another key element from the classical stories.

Set against the classical stories, Pamphilia is both Theseus, potentially lost in a deadly maze, and Ariadne, the feminine voice of love who provides the guiding thread to allow for escape. The paths of experience, although fraught with complex emotions, can bring enlightenment and personal growth. Moreover, putting experience into words can bring further surprising psychological and philosophical insights. The labyrinth, then, becomes an appropriate image of how language can bring personal In this strange labyrinth how shall I turn?

The tenth sonnet of the corona proposes a distinctive relationship between love and reason. In classical and Puritan philosophies, reason should rule emotions. Although Pamphilia remains within the labyrinth of emotional experience, her journey through language has brought her insights along the way. Doob, for example, discusses the common medieval spelling of labyrinth as laborintus, which reinforces the concept of labor or work.

The speaker continues to develop dynamically in the following poems, as Pamphilia to Amphilanthus concludes. The corona, the third key element from the classical stories, symbolizes praiseworthy value or achievement. Like Dubrow and Moore, both Jeff Masten and nona Fienburg argue that Wroth reveals a developing feminine subjectivity throughout Pamphilia to Amphilanthus. The labyrinth in this enclosure provided Wroth with a vehicle for representing and exploring an emotional journey. The journey might not be over at the conclusion of the corona, but the processes of art allow for surprising, valuable revelations along the way—in the twisting paths and sudden turns of language.

Works Cited Diehl, Huston. Doob, Penelope Reed. Dubrow, Heather. Echoes of Desire: English Petrarchism and its Counterdiscourses. Fienberg, nona. Miller and Gary Waller. Knoxville: U of tennessee P, Masten, Jeff. Miller, naomi J. Lexington, Ky. Moore, Mary b. Desiring Voices: Women Sonneteers and Petrarchism. Carbondale, ill. Rolfe Humphries. Roberts, Josephine A. The Poems of Lady Mary Wroth. Wroth, Lady Mary. Josephine A. As a journeyer through the horrors of hell, Dante, the author and pilgrim, is both artificer and maze walker, the one who must navigate the complex structure of the poem and the labyrinth of the self.

Below are three sections from the essay. New York: Harcourt Brace, The earthly sphere is the incomplete and concrete likeness of the heavenly sphere, a form filled out with matter in a fortuitous fashion, an irregular sphere whose outer surface is determined by Heaven, its content by the material. Since Heaven is the realm of form, and Hell the realm of matter, Hell has its place in the interior of the earthly sphere, indeed in its inmost centre.

This centre, as the abode of the absolutely material, is just as extreme and abstract as spacelessness, regarded as the abode of absolute form. The stage of the Commedia lies between the outmost limits of the divine and of the infernal world. The inferno is the most dismembered, but still divinely ordered, landscape, inhabited by devils.

This funnel, with its cliffs, abysses, shattered rocks, dilapidated bridges, streams, torrents, lakes, and morasses, with rain, snow, and hail, with firebrands and ice, with wildernesses and forests, in short with all the terrors of wild and hostile nature, is one of the mightiest creations of poetic imagination.

The subterranean constructions: the gate of Hell, the city of Dis, graves, fountains, dams, etc. The order and intent which they reveal are just as devilish and inhuman as the apparent disorder and irrationality of nature. Therefore the poet has placed the infernal city, with its organization and administration, in the lower section of the inferno, the purely natural transgressions in the upper portion.

Accordingly, the infernal scenery is the poetic expression of an ever-increasing enmity toward man. The scenery is therefore essentially dramatic, is part of the action, and often becomes the action itself. We have in the Inferno a drama wherein not only the players but even the scenery actively participate. Only in poor dramas does the scenery harden into mere useless decoration; in the inferno, however, furious rain, howling wind, tongues of flame, biting cold, stench, light, gloaming, darkness, and even the motionless stones are things alive that give pain and are malicious.

Out of all the shadows of the abysses horrors are grimacing, and behind every rock agony lurks. The earth, the walls of a room, the air, are all spiteful, uncanny, bewitched, enchanted, unaccountable. His intention is not to sing the horrors of Hell, but to comprehend them, to master them with reason. The terra infernalis is to be explored and explained, not to be enjoyed and conquered, as an Alpine peak is by a tourist. The scenery endowed with life, filled with malice, alive with rage and trickery, has its counterpart in human reason, and especially in Virgil.

He is himself only a part, an inhabitant, even though the wisest, of this kingdom. Provided Virgil remains true to himself, he still cannot, with the most abstract didacticism and good sense, destroy the poetic life of Hell. He is subject to it. His character, as we have analyzed it, signifies for the poem no dangerous negative, but one of its most fruitful, liveliest resources. These minor figures—and all in Hell except Dante and Virgil are minor figures—are yet so fully taken up with their own affairs that the passage of the two wanderers must appear to them a strange, sometimes desirable, sometimes indifferent or unwished-for, interruption of their own toils.

So, instead of being the echo, the chorus, or the decorative environment to the chief action, they carry on a variety of independent minor actions. The chief action threatens to become empty and to sink to the level of a mere journey or wandering, the motive of which is but the crossing of the infernal realm, in accordance with a program. Curiosity and haste would then be the only spring of the main action; and in this express-train fashion of travelling, the inhabitants of the land, with all their own peculiar interests, must seem mere fleeting phantoms; somewhat in the manner that human beings, houses, cities, rivers, mountains and forests, signboards, and milestones go whirling by those who sit in a swiftly rushing railroad train.

At the close of the poem the mind of the hasty reader retains no sense of development, but a maze of pictures. The majority of readers of Dante actually remember, not the course and progress of the poem in its entirety, but only certain brilliant episodes. So it comes to pass that, at the present day, in most italian cities where Dante is publicly read and expounded, the poem is cut to pieces, and only single cantos are treated, never the poem as a whole. Such dissection may be due to the scanty capacity of the readers, but to some extent it is a natural result of the construction of the poem.

Just as we plan a long journey, calendar and map in hand, so Dante arranged the successive stops of his pilgrimage through Hell and the hours of the day with such detail and exactness that the expounders find themselves compelled to prepare Dante charts and Dante clocks. For the comprehension of poetry, which by nature is incommensurable, these attempts at orientation can give no adequate aid. As we do not want to memorize but to understand the poem, we renounce artificial mnemonic aids. Since the Inferno does describe a pilgrimage or journey, clocks and maps are an essential part of the illusion, and the efforts at orientation by the travellers are, just as much as their most exciting adventures or poetically enlivened action, aesthetically effective, justified, and correct.

When Dante, in the eleventh canto of the Inferno and in the seventeenth of the Purgatorio, makes Virgil explain the moral order of these realms, and when Virgil, at almost every cornice of Hell or Purgatory, inquires for the shortest way, the situation cannot, to an intelligent critic, appear inartistic. We need not concern ourselves, now that we have left the study of the sources behind us, with the question of the scientific value that is to be accorded to the chronology, astronomy, moral philosophy, and geography of the Commedia.

For just by means of this exactitude the poet has overcome the danger that the main and the subordinate actions may fall apart. So it is not that the poet has turned mathematician: it is the mathematician that has become a poet. Chiefly because the divisions and ordering of the journey are taken so seriously by the travellers, the numerous impressions, the many little dramas, acquire their fixed and fitting place, and ceasing to be mere episodes, which might at will be rearranged or even omitted, are built up one upon another, so that the earlier are presupposed and explained by the later.

So it is the memory not of the reader, but of the poet and traveller, that holds together the chief and the minor actions. For recollection is, in its essence, intellectual will and inward sympathy. The chief action is, accordingly, no hasty trip or mere sightseeing journey, but an orderly, attentive, and profound process of grasping and recasting all minor incidents and scenery. The whole Commedia, from beginning to end, fully understood and lived through, is an extraordinary task, which only extraordinary people accomplish. The division of the infernal region and of the journey through it is therefore no abstract scheme, but a frame that sets off and unites the whole, arrays it and defines it, and permits all the episodes to appear both separately and collectively, a frame which is a part of the picture, because it was planned with it and is viewed with it.

Sometimes he forgets himself so completely in conversation with a sinner, or at the sight of a monster, that this sinner, that monster, becomes the centre of interest and the chief action; sometimes he is so keenly and clearly aware of his own position, so collects himself and becomes so thoroughly absorbed in himself, that the whole of Hell seems drawn and engulfed into this inward swirl. The former may easily be found monotonous, the latter bewildering. What is the elemental tone and mood of the Inferno? And is it possible that a spirit like that of Dante could feel at ease there?

All hope abandon, ye who enter in! For no less eternal and fathomless than life is its most faithful companion, pain. This divine origin gives Hell its hopeless eternity and unconquerable power. He who thus harbours torture within himself despairs. An awesome shrinking from an eternity of pain is the keynote of the Inferno. That is why its scenery is conceived as hostile to life, cruel, diabolical, and always on the offensive against mankind: an agony made visible and ennobled by its eternal duration; a fixed threat against the ego.

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Therefore the main action of the Inferno is a stirring, an inferno appealing and attentive contemplation and inward experience of that scenery. That Alighieri was never in his life better prepared and emotionally more adapted for such an undertaking and for the full comprehension of hatred, cruelty, and all the agonies of earth than in the days when he had himself undergone his bitterest griefs, the death of beatrice and of emperor Henry, and when he could not but doubt his own worth—all this we know full well.

The conception of the Inferno fits into those years and moods of despair, and every canto bears traces of them. The stuff of which he was made contained more gall than milk.

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The Inferno with its tangible realism is like a monster whose soul has no definite organ, and in which not only the limbs but the hair and claws are endowed with life, coiling and writhing like snakes and scorpions. Note 1. Inferno, iii, 1—9. The entire poem, in fact, can be understood as itself a kind of labyrinth—one that is full of puzzling turns, unexpected twists, and literally mysterious passages. Symbolically, too, the poem itself fulfills many of the traditional and figurative functions often associated with labyrinths and mazes: it leads us both into and through a strange and confusing new place; it initiates us into a bewildering but also fascinating kind of experience; it is figuratively associated with paradise but also contains threatening or disturbing elements; and it is explicitly linked with the holy, the sacred, and the inscrutable Cooper 92— Reading the poem, like passing into and out of a labyrinth, functions almost as a rite of initiation in which the reader, like any initiate, is transformed, so that by the end of the process he or she has achieved a new and deeper kind of knowledge, although it is knowledge that cannot be simply explained, logically expressed, or easily understood.

Over the centuries and in different cultures, labyrinths have been interpreted and understood in a wide variety of ways. The river plays a far more active role in the poem than does even Kubla himself. The poem offers little emphasis on either sin or salvation at least as those terms are usually and conventionally conceived. Coleridge does not create an obviously Christian or even anti-Christian atmosphere; issues of conventional religion, conventional morality, and conventional spirituality seem largely irrelevant to this poem.

Thus in its labyrinthine aspects, as in so much else, the work seems for the most part sui generis, or quite literally one of a kind. There are still other aspects of the potential meanings of labyrinthine imagery to mention. Once that person reaches the Samuel taylor Coleridge centre, he or she is, as it were, made holy, entering the arcane and bound by the secret Thus, just as Kubla Khan brings an entire alternate universe into existence by simple decree, so, in a sense, does Coleridge himself.

The word stately suggests something princely, noble, majestic, and imposingly dignified, while the term pleasure dome is intriguingly vague. What kinds of pleasures are associated with it? There is, from the very beginning of this lyric, an air of tantalizing inscrutability that makes reading the poem an experience similar to entering a labyrinth full of strange twists and unexpected turns. Once again, then, Coleridge like Kubla himself creates by simple fiat—by mere decree—and it is with the introduction of the river that we have our first real hint of potentially labyrinthine imagery.

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The opening lines imply the power of Kubla including his ability to impose his designs on nature , but those lines imply the even greater power of nature itself. Does the phrase sinuous rills refer to streams designed for irrigation, or were the streams present before Kubla imposed his design? What is most striking in this respect, however, is how little Coleridge says about the details of the walls, the towers, the gardens, the pleasure-dome, or any other aspects of the man-made designs that have been imposed upon the landscape.

We are given no precise information about the appearance of any of these things, nor are we provided with any information about how they were constructed. Up to this point, Kubla has seemed all-powerful, but now even he or at least his creation seems potentially under threat. The natural tumult just described seems, perhaps, merely a prelude to a violently destructive human tumult involving people who are, nevertheless, never mentioned or even alluded to in this puzzling poem. The lyric, in other words, has taken another one of its strange, unpredictable, yet fascinatingly labyrinthine twists.

The possibility of war briefly adds dark and ominous shadows to the lyric, but then the topic is discarded just as suddenly and inexplicably as it was introduced. Hypnotically, yet unpredictably, the poem will veer off in an unexpected direction and then, just as mysteriously, circle back upon itself.

The poem moves in circles, yet its unfolding is never regular or predictable. The movement of the poem, in other words, has involved an elaborate, unpredictable, and indeed typically labyrinthine movement inward; no longer is the Samuel taylor Coleridge speaker much concerned with Kubla or Xanadu per se; now his main interest is in his own, personal yearning to be able to re-create, within himself, the imaginative, creative power that Kubla and Xanadu have come to symbolize. And then the poem suddenly stops. There is no slow, gradual emergence from this maze; there is no steady, reassuring retracing of steps, no calming return to an outside world that seems comforting because it is familiar.

Works Cited or CoNsulted becker, Udo. The Continuum Encyclopedia of Symbols. Lance W. Dictionary of Symbolism. James Hulbert. Chevalier, Jean, and Alain Gheerbrant. The Penguin Dictionary of Symbols. John buchanan-brown. Cipolla, Gaetano. Labyrinth: Studies on an Archetype. Cirlot, J. A Dictionary of Symbols. Jack Sage. Kubla Kahn Cooper, J. An Illustrated Encyclopedia of Traditional Symbols. Faris, Wendy b. Jean-Charles Seigneuret, et al. Ferber, Michael. A Dictionary of Literary Symbols. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, Jaskolski, Helmut. Moon, beverly. An Encyclopedia of Archetypal Symbolism.

Columbia, S. Paz works from within the cultural crisis brought about by the progressive institutionalization of the Mexican Revolution, which fossilized a revolutionary language that had become, in the late s, pamphleteering, sloganistic, debased. Language as the means of social exchange is immensely important to Paz. He complains, for example, that the only poetry left to Mexicans is found in the obscene verb chingar; that the linguistic world of the Mexican-American pachuco is a melange of Spanish and english, and so on.

The Labyrinth of Solitude is fundamentally the work of a poet who reexamines the meaning of such words as nation, love, society, poetry. A historical as The Labyrinth of Solitude well as a semiotic treatise, this work will be the model upon which Paz will fashion his intellectual role in Mexican political discourse after , by presenting himself as the one who defines Mexico as a particular geographical entity torn by the conflicting voices of the nation and the state. This other Paz is, as he says in his poetry, also the same. As poetry and politics become more interrelated, particularly during the s, Paz tries to explain his own dialectical categories.

The historian is situated at some midpoint between the scientist and the poet. Historical events are not governed by laws, or at least those laws have not been discovered. The words remind us that Paz is attempting to fuse disparate realms of an activity grounded in poetry, seen as part and parcel of one and the same work. Paz, who had started to Octavio Paz write about Mexico and its reality in , undertakes his first journey to the United States in , and it is during this trip that he will start consolidating many of the themes found in his work.

Paz repeatedly mentioned the year and his absence from Mexico for nine years as marking an epochal change for him. During those nine years, Paz lived in the United States and, later, in France, india, Japan, and Switzerland as a member of the Mexican diplomatic corps. As Paz himself states in his book, he was able to see and to read the fate of Mexico implicitly and explicitly described in the body of the Pachuco.

Paris represented the beginning of a fruitful decade for Paz. The recastings of The Labyrinth of Solitude would have not changed the overall thrust of the book, had it not been for the addendum written after the events that occurred on 2 October , in the Plaza de las tres Culturas, or tlatelolco, where the police fired on protesters who demanded a more open and democratic system of government.

Remarkably, it is a book that remains immensely consistent over time.

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As we shall see, Paz has refined or nuanced his points of view, but he has never recanted the core basis of these ideas. One was Roger Caillois, whose fundamental Octavio Paz Man and the Sacred illuminated the sacred importance of the fiesta; the other was Georges bataille, who shed light on Mexican customs via his ideas of ritual sacrifice and expenditure in society.

The Labyrinth of Solitude then, is not so much a book on politics, as a political book. Unamuno sought to explain not only the visible, but also the invisible threads to Spanish culture; Ortega was the foremost Spanish philosopher of his time, as well as the editor of Revista de Occidente, where much of German philosophical thought was translated into Spanish.

Unamuno, for example, read the nation as a living text. As such, the nation possessed a hidden center that the historian had to decipher, in order to read history from that hidden axis. His debt to nietzsche is found, rather, in the sweeping historical panoramas constructed by the German thinker. Paz created in The Labyrinth of Solitude a mode of historical research that led to a method. Few dates, and some individuals, incarnate given ideas that move and define particular centuries. The ideas that Paz wants to examine are not specifically or particularly conscious ones; rather, they are submerged in deeper strata of consciousness, and come up to the surface at particular historical junctures.

All purely historical explanations are insufficient for Paz, because history should not be merely the accounting of facts. Re-reading the book, one notices the particular absences that account for the fact that this is a book written by an exile. Literature spans the space of exile; it crosses borders—but incompletely. The Labyrinth of Solitude is divided into eight chapters and an appendix. As he sees it, The Labyrinth of Solitude obeys a sense of inductive reasoning, from particulars to generalities—from myth, to Mexican history, and finally, to what Paz himself terms a kind of vital and historic rhythm.

The book proceeds, then, from the immediate experience, centered on the pachuco, to the mythical present of Mexico, and it is only after the mythical route has been completed that he moves on to history. What gives the book a certain flexibility as an essay, is precisely its discontinuous and even disarticulate, nature. The interplay between them both is insinuated, and not necessarily stated. The Labyrinth of Solitude can be divided into two major blocks, composed of Myth and History, but there are other possible readings, particularly in relation to the first three sections on masks, feasts, and language.

The first chapter posits an implicit essence for the Mexican, one that proceeds from the particular illegibility that Paz sees in the pachuco. The pachuco is seen as a reticent being, a kind of chiaroscuro subject. He inhabits a tenuous system of checks and balances. There is an implicit analogy between the pachuco and the collective sense of the Mexican fiesta, which Paz explores in the second chapter.

Death and rebirth, inscribed and celebrated within the Mexican nation, are not unlike the cultural dislocation felt between north and South as it is written on the very body of the pachuco—a being who exaggeratedly mimics the north American in a rebellious gesture of excess. The procedure that Paz follows in the initial chapters of The Labyrinth of Solitude is thus aesthetic: it is grounded on poetic procedure, in that it establishes a tenuous equation between two realms, and it allows that equation that relationship to explode by means of metaphor. These relationships, or analogies, are then replicated in the equation between Myth and History in the two parts of the book.

The Labyrinth of Solitude is based on a series of analogies for modernity, seen as the most complex problem facing Mexico. The book begins by trying to give us insight into the uniqueness of singularity, of individual life. Children and adults, says Paz, may transcend their own solitude by immersing themselves in play or work. Modernity, however, gives us the image of a Man permanently out of touch with time, unable to lose himself in what he does.

Modernity is a disjunction, a kind of monstrous asynchronicity manifested in the chronological fabric displayed between national and individual life; ancient traditions have been submitted to a discontinuous growth that has resulted in their being ill-prepared for the historical avalanche of progress, while the individual is left pondering the state of his own solitary endeavours upon reaching maturity. Paz seems to ask, if adolescence is equated with solitude, and maturity with collective endeavor, how can Mexicans, who have already fought a revolution, still be questioning their identity?

Labyrinths are products of a mind that sees and examines the world in its own particular terms. The labyrinth evolves out of, and tries to resolve, the dialectics between myth and history. The prize at the end of the labyrinth, as Paz explains in the appendix to the book, is the utopia of the fulfilled The Labyrinth of Solitude human being.

The Labyrinth of Solitude is conceived as a purgation, as medicine and cure to vacuous nationalism. The labyrinth is the imagistic link that allows Paz to narrate a series of ruptures that mark the book itself: from the disjunction of modernity and of the solitary individual, to that of a country ruptured within itself. The book seduces readers into the same labyrinth that Paz has constructed for himself, by creating and not resolving the dialectics that underlie its construction.

MeTAMorphoses oVid ,. His numerous forms of repetition in the Metamorphoses, unlike the windings of the Cretan labyrinth, are inherently linked to a concept of play. Their aim is ultimately not to confuse the reader but to take him through an experience that will make him perceive the manifold paradoxes of the human condition more fully.

As one of the most powerful artist figures in the Metamorphoses, Daedalus uses his inventive powers both for constraint, by constructing the labyrinth to contain the Minotaur, and for release, by fashioning wings to escape from Crete. Horace in the Odes uses the flight of Daedalus and icarus as an image of artistic hubris, in particular aspiring to the high genre of epic 1. Like Ovid, Vergil incorporates his story of Daedalus in the middle of his poem. This position, mediating between old and new, past and future,4 lends itself to reflection not only on the heroic ethic but also on the poetics of the Aeneid.

The poet illustrates the windings of the labyrinth through an analogy with the river Maeander: non secus ac liquidis Phrygius Maeandrus in undis ludit et ambiguo lapsu refluitque fluitque occurrensque sibi venturas adspicit undas et nunc ad fontes, nunc ad mare versus apertum incertas exercet aquas, ita Daedalus inplet innumeras errore vias vixque ipse reverti ad limen potuit: tanta est fallacia tecti.

Thus Daedalus fills the countless paths with windings and could himself barely return to the threshold: so great is the deceptiveness of the structure. The use of an epic simile to compare the labyrinth with the river Maeander may be original with Ovid. Hollis notes, Seneca the younger refers to the Maeander as the poetarum omnium exercitatio et Indus Ep. The image of the Maeander here seems to symbolize expansive forms of literature, especially epic, the high genre that Propertius dismisses along with tragedy in favor of elegy.

The chiasmus of Phrygio fallax Maeandria campo neatly conveys the sense of a winding course, and the elisions of the first two words of the hexameter lend a sense of abruptness analogous to the uncertain flow of the river. The river as anthropomorphic being plays ludit and watches adspicit. The heavily spondaic meter in these lines nicely counters the predominantly dactylic pattern in the first part of the simile.

Ovid further calls attention to his own poetics by differentiating himself from Vergil in this simile. The phrase ambiguo lapsu succinctly captures the essence of the river with its circuitous flow. The hero himself views this representation of the labyrinth while on his way to consult the Sibyl about descending to the underworld to reunite with his father. Ovid dissociates his labyrinth from the grueling labors of the Vergilian hero. His etymological play connecting the verb labor with the labyrinth perfectly characterizes the form of his own poem, its fluid movement from tale to tale and the clever, if tenuous, transitions from one book to another.

The adjective ambiguus furthermore points to the unexpected twists and turns in this poem. This labyrinthine movement derives in part from the interlacement created by the interruption of a tale with an intervening story and from the recollection of a myth already recounted through similarities of theme or plot line. Ovid further defines his poetics by contrast to Vergil in his description of the playfulness of the Maeander liquidis. As the narrator of the tale of erysichton and in book 9 of his own contest with Hercules, Achelous is a long-winded, overly dramatic speaker whose tumid style matches his swollen flood imbre tumens, He begins by providing a picture of Daedalus at work Thus the rustic Pan pipes sometimes gradually rise with unequal reeds.

The epicurean poet furthermore elaborates on the usefulness of the rustic instruments by providing delight and alleviating cares — Ovid himself has already made the reader aware of the function of Pan pipes in a narrative that exemplifies his light, witty style. His aetiology of the syrinx 1. As Daedalus concentrates on constructing the wings, Metamorphoses icarus plays with the materials. The father then curses his own skill: devovitque suas artes Much as the Maeander looks back at his own course, so Ovid returns to his earlier work and reveals the complex turns of his poem as a literary labyrinth.

As an indication of the difference in perspective with his earlier version, Ovid changes his description of the island Calymne over which Daedalus and icarus fly from silvisque umbrosa 2. As if to point up its importance, Ovid recalls this image later in book 8.

The centerpiece of the humble, yet amusingly varied, banquet that baucis and Philemon provide for Jupiter and Mercury is a honeycomb candidus in medio favus est, The praeceptor of the Ars depicts Daedalus in a positive light, even as an exemplar of piety. There is no way except that one for me to escape my master. Ovid even repeats verbatim the essential injunction: inter utrumque vola ; Ars 2.

There, the god Phoebus is unable to persuade the youth to reconsider his request to drive the chariot of the sun. Phoebus is much more detailed in his advice and gives his son guidelines about navigating past the constellations. He reinforces the substance of his warnings, for instance, with alliterative cacophony to impress upon the boy the menacing aspect of Scorpio: saevaque circuitu curvantem bracchia longo 2.

Daedalus does not even contemplate such limitations on mortals. Sharwood Smith points out, Odysseus wisely chooses to watch the Pleiades, bootes, Arctus, and Orion —77 as the means of maintaining an easterly course towards ithaca, since such a grouping would be easier to follow than one star. The text of the Odyssey furthermore provides information about these constellations that is relevant to the issue of divine influence.

While using the name most common in extant Hellenistic literature,36 Ovid may wish to tease the reader into recalling the variety of names given to the most familiar of constellations, since he himself recounted in book 2 the etiological tale of the nymph known as Callisto, who was metamorphosed into Ursa Major, the Great bear. After giving birth to a son named Areas, the nymph is transformed into a bear by a jealous Juno and later narrowly misses being killed by her own son in a hunting expedition. Although Jupiter intervenes by metamorphosing both mother and son into constellations, Juno further seeks revenge by prevailing upon the sea goddess tethys to prevent the bears from ever setting in the ocean.

Although Daedalus appears uninterested in the interaction between humans and mortals in the background to these constellations, Ovid subtly reminds his reader of the power of divine influence on human life, especially in the form of punishment. Although his craft is shattered by Poseidon, Odysseus is able to redeem himself and is not, like icarus, fatally immersed in the sea.

He is saved by his characteristic ability to adapt to unforeseen circumstances: although hesitant, he puts on the magic veil given to him by the sea goddess Leucothea and is then able to swim to land — Odysseus understands that skill alone is not enough; divine assistance is sometimes essential. He himself is not able to rescue his son, and no god intervenes to save him. For he relates the story of Perdix, which is not found in the other extant literary accounts of Daedalus, out of chronological sequence. Ovid here sustains the etymology for his labyrinth from the verb labor Ovid with his use of the word lapsus.

With the Perdix story, Ovid emphasizes that the artisan repeats himself with destructive results. Recalling his earlier description of Daedalus in the phrase naturamque novat , Ovid suggests that Perdix is the one who truly transformed nature. The young boy saw patterns in nature from which he was able to extract designs; the creations completely superseded the originals and became something entirely new.

Thus, he invented the saw by using the backbone of a fish as a model. He conveys the bound arms of the compass, for instance, by a framing technique that encloses the words for the two iron arms within the phrase for the single knot: ex uno duo ferrea bracchia nodo Similarly, he gives the impression of the way by which one arm always remains stable as the other moves by intricate word patterning: altera pars staret, pars altera duceret orbem The anaphora in a chiastic pattern here neatly suggests the opposite, but complementary, functions of the scribe and point of the compass. When Daedalus thrust his nephew off the Acropolis, he intended to murder the boy.

Daedalus is thus indirectly responsible for the metamorphosis of Perdix into a bird. Ovid leaves implicit in the Metamorphoses what he expresses directly in the Ars, that Daedalus and icarus took off by leaping from a cliff 2.

Here, moreover, the poet calls attention to the special nature of the place from which Daedalus thrust the boy, sacraque ex arce Minervae The artisan thus violated the sacred precinct of the very goddess to whom he should have shown the utmost piety. The hendiadys of the phrase in ramis altoque cacumine, which makes the words alto cacumine grammatically equivalent to ramis instead of subordinate to it, calls attention to the problem of height. While flitting above the ground propter humum volitat , it builds its nests in hedges to protect its young ponitque in saepibus ova, The perdix would therefore seem instinctively to represent the principle of mediocritas.

According to Sharrock, Daedalus in the Ars and the Metamorphoses is a figure for the Callimachean poet, who like Ovid, maintains a stylistic middle ground, whereas icarus represents the type of poet who aspires to the high genre of Homeric-style epic. For low temperature applicationsthe surfaces after a rub with the aluminum seals rubs with ther- such as the suction end of refrigeration machines , it is importantmoplastic seals do not damage the rotating element.

If available, to consider the contraction of the seal relative to the diaphragm andit is also advisable to supply runout values for consideration during the rotating sealing surface. The most important consideration is tothe engineering.

The Labyrinth (Bloom's Literary Themes)

Since there is limited low temperatureequipment manufacturer OEM of the compressor, the compressor information on these materials, it is often necessary to extrapolateframe, OEM design clearances, unit designation, other designa- the thermal and mechanical properties from the high temperaturetions for the compressor, the driver type, and even the rotor serial data. Impeller Eye and Balance Piston Centrifugal GrowthThermal Expansion The growth of the sealing surfaces due to rotation needs to be As mentioned earlier, the thermal expansion of the seal is an considered to ensure the seals do not end up at zero or negativeimportant consideration in the engineering phase of an clearance at speed.

This can be calculated utilizing finite elementupgrade project. As the plot presented earlier Figure 11 techniques, but this is quite time consuming and costly to performshows, the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of the ther- just for a thermoplastic seal upgrade. Usually the impellers in amoplastics is considerably higher than aluminum and even compressor change substantially from stage to stage requiring thehigher yet than the surrounding materials impellers, shaft analysis be performed for each stage.

Another technique used bysleeves, diaphragms, etc. Generally the CLTE of the com- one company was to spin the rotor up to speed in a high-speedpressor internals will be around 6. Since the desire is to design to close It is sufficient to use an annular disk centrifugal growth calcula-clearances, it is important to consider the thermal expansion to tion that uses modifying factors to model impeller geometries. Thisunderstand how the clearances will change with temperature. Because of the uncertaintylow temperature applications. One method to determine this The first step in the process is to estimate the temperature at each clearance is to set it equal to the bearing clearance.

This is conven-seal location. The OEM usually has this information readily ient since the clearance is tied to journal size, which is tied toavailable, but for an aftermarket upgrade, it is sufficient to estimate machine size. Therefore, larger compressors will have largerthese values by assuming a linear change in temperature from designed operating clearances. For configurations that are more complicatedit may be necessary to assume stage efficiencies and calculate stage As the drawings in Figure 13 illustrate, the radial clearance oftemperatures accordingly; and consider mass flow rates and a thermoplastic seal in a horizontally split compressor can bemixing when side streams are involved.

Usually this level of detail designed to match the radial bearing clearance. In vertically splitis not required since it takes gross errors in stage temperatures to machines barrel compressors , it is advisable to increase thishave significant impacts on the final seal design. This can be done by machine design and age to estimate how well the seals will begoing to available published data and interpolating or, if these cal- aligned to the rotor after the bundle is installed in the compressor,culations are performed on a regular basis, it may make sense to and the rotor is up on bearings.

One other factor to consider withcurve fit the data and use the resulting equations to calculate these thermoplastic seal clearance is the interlocking seal case whereproperties. The properties calculated are the CLTE, the strength, rotating teeth seal against the bore between stationary teeth. Forand the modulus of the material since both strength and modulus these cases, it has worked well when the clearance between thedrop off at elevated temperatures. One way to do this is to calculate the free thermal area.

The drawing in Figure 13 illustrates this clearance rule ofexpansion of the following: thumb concept. Material Tensile Strength Versus Temperature. Picture of Broken Balance Piston Seal. Butt Gaps Figure A butt gap is a designed-in gap between the two halves of a splitseal. The theory is that by calculating the linear thermal expansion Figure Picture of Thermoplastic Insert in Metallic Holder.

For true optimization, this gap would having rotating teeth running between the stationary teeth. However, since the compressive modulus of the materials usedis so low, it is often more convenient to design for zero butt gapsand let the part absorb this growth as a compressive stress. Formost applications, this stress is a couple orders of magnitude belowthe compressive strength of the material.

Impact on Rotordynamics Labyrinth seals can influence the stability of the compressor. Itis known that conventional labyrinth seals do impart cross-coupledforces to the rotor acting to lower the logarithmic decrement. Considerable work has been done over the years to calculate theseforces. Most of the modern techniques use computational fluiddynamics programs to evaluate these forces. These factors have a trivial impact on the seals rotordynamiccoefficients.

If there is an issue where reduced seal cross-couplingis desired, then the seal redesign can accommodate this by incor-porating swirl breaks, shunts, or other stabilizing geometry. Stress Analysis As stated earlier, the modulus and strength of these materialsdecreases with increasing temperature, and this needs to be consideredwhen performing stress calculations. The plot in Figure 14 demon-strates how the strength of selected thermoplastic materials drops offwith increasing temperature. Also plotted is strength versus tempera-ture for aluminum T6 material; it is important to keep in mindthat the aluminum is ductile while the thermoplastics are not.

Pressurearea forces that may overstress axial hooks must also be evaluated. With an early balance piston seal, there was a failure when thepressure area forces overcame the strength of the part, and it broke inservice. Since these materials are considerably more brittle thanaluminum, stress concentration effects must be considered. Becauseof this, extra care should be used in the design phase to reduce theseeffects by using generous radii and minimizing other stress riser areas. The photographs in Figures 15 and 16 are of the balance piston sealthat failed at the hook in service.

Figure 17 is a picture of another sealthat was redesigned to minimize the impact of pressure area forces onthe weaker thermoplastic material. This allows thestronger aluminum to absorb these forces while taking advantage ofthe thermoplastic properties at the labyrinth teeth. This Figure alsoillustrates the interlocking seal design described earlier. This is another reason why it is a good idea to keep theupsets and the heat generated by rubs. In addition, since it is the parts packaged until they are needed.

Michelin first- and second-timers: Labyrinth's Han Liguang and Corner House's Jason Tan

Carelarger selection of mold sizes to choose from, allowing material to must be used to ensure that the proper seal is installed in its properbe procured closer to the net shape, thereby reducing material cost location. In many compressors, there are seals that will haveand machining time. The location is important toin an ethylene plant; with some plant designs there is the possibil- ensure the integrity of the upgrade.

Upon installation, it is important not to force or drive a seal into its fit or diaphragm. Light sanding on the tight spot will remove material at a rapid rate. Care must be taken to ensure that Thermoplastic parts are different in many ways from the too much clearance is not put into the seal with the use of themetallic parts being replaced. Care should be taken with the emery paper. The following installation procedures should be followed afterPackaging and Storage first checking all labyrinths to assure that they have been stored properly and are damage free, and to verify the shaft and impeller Of the thermoplastic materials covered in this tutorial, only dimensions are correct.

Install both top and bottom halves of the labyrinths in the com-for six months can swell as much as 2 percent dimensionally 5 pressor case with the rotor removed to be sure the hook fit ispercent by weight , making them unacceptable for installation. The correct. Care should be taken not to get the parts too hot as the a. Stand laby next to its fit to assure that OD is same size as fitentrained moisture can flash to steam and blister the seal, causing in case.

Large differences should be investigated before an attemptsignificant damage. An acceptable way to address the moisture absorption issue is to: b. If the laby is tight rolling into hook, check the seal for rubs or scratches that may indicate a burr in the hook. The laby should roll in without force. Reinstall the seals in the bottom case. Moisture absorption in service is not an issue because the seal is 3. Once the rotor has been installed in the lower half of the case, atrapped by the diaphragm, the gas flow sets up a boundary layer, careful check must be made to ensure that the seals have clearanceand the higher operating temperatures keep the part dry.

As an and ensure that the rotor is going through the center of theexample, an air compressor in an ammonia plant in Louisiana ran diaphragm. Start at one end of the machine and use long feelerfor over two years, and when the case was split, the seals rolled gauges to check the split line clearances. Once this has been doneright out—they had not swelled at all in service, even through the and recorded, minor sanding of the seals may be needed to achievevery humid summers in Louisiana.

Oddly enough, the spare seals, clearance. A diaphragm that is sitting to the left or right can causewhich had been removed from their packaging before being stored this problem. These seals were 4. In the top half, it is recommended that masking tape be layeredcarefully dried out and returned to their original design dimen- on the rotor masking tape is approximately.

It is recommended that tape be applied just aboveturnaround timing. Raise the upper casing and look where the masking tape has been touched by A last concern on packaging is the fact that these parts have less the laby; this will be the clearance. Sand seals as needed to achievestrength than the metallic parts being replaced and are relatively proper clearance. Note: Be especially careful when lowering thebrittle. An impact that would normally dent an aluminum tooth upper casing as any impact on the thermoplastic seals couldmay break a thermoplastic tooth. As such, it is important to damage or break them.

It is recommended that. This also is a valid statement. It has been found that if the common sense other efficiency upgrades are sound, then a proportioning of the overall gains can be made, and all projects can be credited enough 2: a general principle regarded as roughly correct but not for justification purposes. It seems obvious that none of the intended to be scientifically accurate. The factors to consider include: the upgrade will result in an efficiency gain.

Some of these casesoverall efficiency. Two detailed casepiston or center seals that are upgraded will realize more of an histories that are more recent will be reviewed here. Cracked Gas Compressor Train. The Whalen and Miller Most projects are evaluated based upon energy savings since paper mostly covers the thermoplastic seal upgrade from this samethese calculations are easiest to perform, do not need to consider outage, which took place in During this turnaround, thermo-feedstock, or end product supply and demand economics, and are plastic seals were installed in two cracked gas compressors and theusually sufficient for the approval process.

One point addressed was the upgrade of the original balance piston sealing arrangement, which used rotating teeth on the balance piston sealing against a smooth babbitt surface in the balance piston seal. This new seal arrangement allowed for an easier seal installa- tion. As discussed earlier, the fitting of thermoplastic seals can be easier, and therefore faster, than the fitting of aluminum seals.

Due to the timing of this redesign, thesethat the use of thermoplastics is important in optimizing perform- propylene seals were not installed during the outage. However, by carefully analyzing all factors the user was able to estimate the following attributed to This case history is documented in a paper by Whalen and the thermoplastic seal upgrade project :Dugas It discusses the upgrade of seven compressors at aworld-class ethylene plant in Orange, Texas.

At this facility, there is sumption with the purge propylene train. Index of Symptoms-guides you easily from the symptom experienced by yourself or others to the sections in the book where relief of that symptom from a particular practice has been repeatedly demonstrated. In this state, we sometimes say and do things that we regret. Guiding Principle: Positive physiological changes in the body occur through the silent, mental repetition of a relaxing word or phrase; heartbeat and respiration slow down, need for oxygen decreases, blood pressure and blood sugar are reduced and, over time, there is a decrease in the rate of physical aging as the metabolism slows down.

Guiding Principle: The pictures we create with our minds can directly influence various bodily responses toward renewed health and relaxation. Guiding Principle: The emotions connected to nagging situations from the past are unnecessary and detrimental to enjoying life in the present. It is possible to remember and learn from the past without dredging up painful feelings. Learn to quickly and effortlessly forgive yourself and others. Guiding Principle: The mind is only at rest when it focuses on a single thought or item. Use this practice to develop your concentration, listening ability and memory.

Guiding Principle: Anxiety-producing thoughts create muscular tension.