The latter was previously issued as the B-side to the single Watching The River Flow , albeit a different version, which I'd heard before on the Masterpieces compilation. I think the Dylan take is nicer. Aptly backed up by The Band, this is probably the most enjoyable listening experience since New Morning. It's certainly the first album since Blonde On Blonde where you could apply the term 'rollicking'. Although they don't lend any harmonies to the songs, The Band do serve up plenty of grooves and gentle funk. Sometimes you get lost in the instrumentation and think that you're listening to an album of The Band's, until you hear Dylan sing again.
Aside from the slightly overlong Dirge , this album is all killer. I'm not sure why they included an alternate version of the latter straight after the version we're all familiar with, but whatever. It was the seventies, I guess, and perhaps a bit of a precursor into how Dylan's back pages of tunes would shape-shift as his career moved forward.
Forever Young holds a special place in my heart for a few reasons. I first heard it played by Perth muso Rick Steele in a pub in Kalgoorlie during the mid's. When Rhones and I got married, a very good friend of her family wrote the entire first verse in our 'congratulations' book.
Dylan ended the first two live shows I saw him perform with Forever Young as well. May your song always be sung. And may you stay forever young". Documenting their joint US tour, this double album offers four sides of those shows. The first half of Side 3 is Dylan solo, with the second half featuring The Band on their own.
Side 4 is Dylan back with The Band again. Got it? For the most part, it's an enjoyable affair, albeit a little unhinged in places. The arrangements of Dylan's songs are certainly different, with Knockin' On Heaven's Door managing to sound upbeat. I reviewed it during my time with the afyccim blog, and wasn't as impressed with it as I assumed I would be. It's touted by many as Dylan's finest work from the 70's, and some even cite it as his best album. I like it much more than I did when I first listened to it, but I don't fall into the latter category; but I'm getting closer to being in the former.
Give me a few more years and I might just adore it as much as the album's strongest admirers. I remember seeing a live and solo version of it on RAGE late one night when I was a teenager, with Dylan wearing mascara, faded white face makeup and a hat. Unfamiliar with the song, I was drawn into its narrative and just loved the title! I heard Dylan perform it in a totally different arrangement at the old Burswood Dome in It took a while for the crowd to cotton on to what they were hearing, but come on! If you don't know those opening lyrics, what kind of Dylan fan are you?
He played it again at the Fremantle Blues n Roots Festival in as well, and the arrangement had changed again! Dylan doesn't look back very often. But getting to back to the album at hand, Blood On The Tracks remains a hugely influential and important record. As with many artists, emotional upheaval can ignite bursts of creativity and as Dylan's marriage to Sara was disintegrating, he wears his heart on the album sleeve.
Okay, well, that will do it for now. Hopefully I can keep the momentum going and get through a few more albums sooner rather than later. Tuesday, 24 May The Magic of Miyazaki pt 1. Who doesn't love a good box set? It's just nice to have cool stuff sometimes. Recently I managed to get my hands on the Blu-ray box of Hayao Miyazaki's films. It's everything a great movie box set should be. There are a couple of my favourites, some I've been meaning to rewatch and a few that I hadn't even seen.
A treasure trove waiting to be discovered and re-discovered. Getting the box set itself took a bit of effort though. I also do surveys online for a few groups, and I'm able to get rewards in the form of vouchers or cash. So, I made a Miyazaki fund, er, that is, envelope, and put all these things in it as I earned them. For a little nighttime viewing, Rhones and I chose a movie that wasn't really appropriate for our kids. No use letting a perfectly good family flick go to waste while they're in bed.
I do find this one a little hard to watch. Firstly, the violence in some of the fight scenes is quite gruesome, and for a Miyazaki film, fairly shocking. It's a long movie too, which at minutes, is the third longest animated film of all time, behind Final Yamato min and The Tale of Princess Kaguya min. I also find it a little hard to follow, and struggle to understand the motivations of some of the characters. Having said all this, it still is a wonderful film, and well worth watching.
There is a lot of beautiful scenery, as usual, and the relationship between the movie's main protagonist Ashitaka and his elk Yakul is wonderful. One of Miyazaki's recurring themes of the human race's effect on its environment, and it's a major part of this movie. While not one of my favourites, it's still essential viewing.
Viewed: 11th March. A wonderful coming-of-age tale involving the young witch Kiki who embarks on her year of living away from home. Every witch leaves home when they turn thirteen in this universe, and it's a rite of passage that Kiki is very keen to go through.
Kinks Kovers/Tribute Song List
This is a very pleasant watch with much humour and wonder. As with many of Miyazaki's films, there is a big emphasis on flight as Kiki struggles to master flying on her broomstick. Her would-be boyfriend Tombo also has aspirations involving aviation. Viewed: 12th March. While it certainly has some memorable moments, plenty of heart and great characters, this is probably my least favourite Miyazaki movie.
It feels a bit like his version of a Hollywood film, while being a riff on The Little Mermaid. It is visually striking though, with the underwater sequences taking on an almost- hypnotic feel. There is a wonderful sense of magic throughout too, with the wizard Fujimoto providing humour as well as intrigue. The kids loved it! Viewed: 19th March. I managed to tape this off SBS years ago, and was looking forward to watching it again, sans adverts.
It didn't disappoint. There are many iconic scenes, but the early image of Sheeta falling slowly through the air into Pazu's waiting arms is my pick. I also love the sequence involving the reactivated robot at the fortress. For a piece of clunking machinery that doesn't speak, you really start to get invested in it. Even as his violent outbursts escalate. Actually, I forgot just how menacing some of the violence and language was for a G-rated film.
For instance, the main villain Muska wonderfully voiced by Mark Hamill in the US version shoots off Sheeta's pigtails, and then tells her that her ears are next. Excuse me? Having said that, there are only a handful of questionable scenes that probably should have earned this a PG rating. The magic of the mystical floating city and the allure of aetherium crystals are entrancing. Seeing as the main theme of this film is aviation, the scenes involving flight are quite majestic. The slapstick comedy of the grandma-like Captain Dola and her pirate sons are another highlight.
Our kids weren't as enamoured with this as the others, but still cast an eye to the television every now and then. Okay, well that might do for this entry. I'll get to the rest of the movies in another blog post soon. Tuesday, 26 April Death of a Celebrity. I've become quite fascinated with how differently people react when a celebrity dies.
If there's some sort of connection to the passed person, the loss can be quite devastating. It's always a sad thing to learn of somebody's death, but is it strange to mourn for somebody you don't know? Someone you have never even met? There are some who get on their high-horse and berate others who grieve for the famously dead. Sometimes they'll offer up victims of a massacre or natural disaster and ask if their deaths are any less significant. When David Bowie died in January this year, it hit me really hard. I think that it was the most that I'd ever been affected by a celebrity death.
I couldn't do much else but listen to album after album of his, and was moved to tears several times. Losing Prince over the weekend has stirred some of those feelings up in me again. I was a much bigger Bowie fan, but I still loved Prince, and was lucky enough to have seen him at the Perth Arena in February.
To lose both of these amazing artists in the first four months of this year is nothing short of tragic. A huge loss to the music industry, as well as the human race. But what makes us take their passing so personally? I think I might have worked it out. When you become a fan of someone's music, you begin to take in part of that person.
They're sharing pieces of their soul, their beliefs, their emotions, their very being. If you connect with a set of lyrics that seem to describe exactly how you're feeling or what you're going through, you feel empathy from the songwriter. Sometimes you even feel relief that someone else has experienced the same thing, and you're not as alone as you once seemed to be. For many, music is a form of therapy. How many of us spent our angsty teenage years in our bedrooms, lost in some moody tunes or cathartic melodies? If you have trouble turning to somebody when you're going through some sort of personal crisis, music is always there.
Music can help you wallow in your sadness or even lift you out of your dark funk. Music carries you through the tough times and then lets you surf over the good times. Music is universal. It means many things to many people. We look to those people for escapism or solace or energy. Despite never actually meeting David Bowie or Prince, millions of people felt a connection to them. Their lives aren't any more or less valuable than the poor souls who perished in that landslide, but their reach is vast.
People in countries they never toured through would possibly still know their music. The one comfort we can take when an artist we love dies, is the legacy they leave. We're very lucky to have been left so much music, art, film and literature by artists who are no longer with us.
While it might sadden us to listen to a particular song or watch a certain film role, it's always worth remembering that, for the most part, this is probably what that person loved doing the most. It drove them. It was their passion. It was their love. We all can take a little piece of that love, whether they are with us or not. Labels: Bowie , celebrity death , music , Prince , Scarlett River. We're both big fans of his music and we know that we're always going to get a good show when we see him.
I thought they were both great tracks, and I was particularly taken by the LRB-esque harmonies on the latter. I was unable to hold on to any lyrics of the clip, but I was taken by the vibe and the harmony sound. It had such a melodic hook too. I was unable to catch the name of the song though, and when Volume 14 of JJJ's Hottest came out I hoped that the Pyke track on the album would be the one of the video I saw. It wasn't. But for me faith don't make up for what we lost".
Could I keep you on my left? The ninth season wasn't very highly revered by critics and fans, but I still think the show did the best they could without the character of Mulder. E Strikers, Flint tells the team they will follow and observe, nothing more. As the Moccasins head down the river Cover Girl realizes that the presence of Weaponsmith, "Cobra's chief munitions expert", makes the operation much bigger than expected.
Suddenly they reach a bridge where a squad of armed police order them to halt. Weaponsmith throws a pistol overboard, feigning surrender. Cover Girl realizes this is a trap and contemplates pulling a gun, but hesitates, realizing it will destroy any chance of discovering the new Cobra weapon which could kill thousands. Weaponsmith suddenly orders Copperhead to fire, destroying the bridge and killing all the policemen.
The Moccasins continue onwards, observed from the sky by Wild Bill in a Dragonfly. Beneath a bridge Weaponsmith suddenly grabs Cover Girl and pulls them both into the water whilst the Moccassins continue onwards. He pulls a knife on her and reveals he knows she is really Cover Girl. Meanwhile the Action Force team follows the Moccasins.
Later at a windmill a few kilometers outside Amsterdam Weaponsmith tells a bound Cover Girl that Cobra have her photo on file. A trooper cuts off her necklace, revealing the giant diamond to be a fake. Inside is a pressure pad that can trigger a tracer device. Weaponsmith decides to activate it.
He explains he wants to test the new weapon - an incredibly powerful laser utilizing diamonds. He calls it "The Stone Cutter". The Action Force team reach the windmill and sneak up to the building. Flint and Sci-Fi sneak in to find Cover Girl bound and gag. Suddenly Weaponsmith appears from above and fires the laser on its lowest setting. Sci-Fi and Flint are both wounded in the blast.
Weaponsmith goes up to the top of the windmill to test it further whilst Flint frees Cover Girl. He orders her to get Sci-Fi out whilst he deals with Weaponsmith. On the balcony of the windmill, Weaponsmith is blasting away at the Action Force team, destroying their cover and wounding several. Suddenly three H. Flint radios Wild Bill to create a distraction and the Dragonfly comers in close to the windmill.
Weaponsmith blasts at it but misses. Flint uses the opportunity to jump Weaponsmith. In the fight the Stone Cutter is dropped over the edge. The Dragonfly returns and Wild Bill shouts to Flint to grab hold as he lifts him out. Weaponsmith shouts that it makes no difference, but suddenly he looks down to see Cover Girl aiming the Stone Cutter at the windmill. She fires, destroying it all. Later Wild Bill notes the H. Cover Girl comments that "the old saying really is true. Diamonds are a girl's best friend. Flint sends a written report to Trent detailing the events that occurred At Westminster tube station they walk down onto the tracks and into the tunnels until they reach an alcove and enter Action Force's London headquarters.
Inside they meet with Flint who offers to show them around first and reassures them the Eel is safely guarded by Footloose. However in the cell the Eel has overpowered Footloose and flees. Before they reach the room the Eel has entered and taken the place of a robot Eel used for training. The pair rapidly overcome three but then the fourth robot appears without a costume, confusing Snake-Eyes.
The real Eel knocks Snake-Eyes out and shoots Scarlett in the arm. Flint's report explains that the Eel escaped through an inlet into the Thames. Immediate pursuit was not possible but Flint realized that if he Snake-Eyes tracked the Eel they could locate Cobra's London base. Letterer: Stewart Bartlett. In the village of Little Meldon, Simon Weller, a bank manager, arrives at work, greeting Hogan, a security guard. Donning the uniform he charges into the main hall with his gun to take the money. Outside Beach Head pulls up in the A.
Striker and sees the raid as Hogan is gunned down. Beach Head lays siege, causing Weller to remain inside and take the staff hostage. Soon Hawk, Lifeline and Roadblock arrive as reinforcements. Beach Head is sent to find a sniper position on the rood whilst Roadblock looks for another entrance to the bank if necessary. Hawk orders the team to only watch for now. At his home Robert Weller, Simon's brother, hears about the siege on the radio. Shortly after midday Robert arrives and meets with Hawk and Lifeline. Robert explains that Simon raised him after their parents were killed by a drunk driver who only received a suspended sentence, to Simon's disgust.
Roadblock radios in to inform Hawk that he has reached the back-door and is ready to move in, but Robert fears lives will he lost. He volunteers to go and talk his brother out. The mission is a success and Simon soon emerges. But suddenly a shot rings out from Beach Head's position on the roof! Tomax and Xamot walk away from where they have knocked out Beach Head. At street level Robert is distraught. Later Hawk tells Beach Head it wasn't his fault but it will be hard to convince Robert of anything.
That night Robert receives two visitors who tell him they know people who can avenge Simon's death. Cobra have planted a bomb on Tower Bridge in London. It is placed in a van and wired to three B. Unless prisoners are released by pm the bomb will be detonated. Any attempt to reach the bomb will trigger it early. It is nearly pm and Hawk refuses to give into demands, preferring to lose the bridge. He explains to Roadblock that Sci-Fi is being rushed back from Germany. Striker and quickly boards a Skystriker flown by Ace. All the time Sci-Fi is calm, almost sleepy, but he thinks to himself that laser riflemen have to maintain incredible self-control because of their dangerous weapons.
Soon they reach Tower Bridge and Sci-Fi is lowered onto the top of one of the towers where he soon lasers through the cables connecting two of the B. However the third has moved making it had to see the cable. Sci-Fi focuses on the connection to the van where he sees three cables. He takes a guess and lasers through one. War Correspondence! Letterer: Paul Marshall. Steve, a photographer, has been told of an offer by the editor of Trooper! Now he loads his pictures onto a slide projector and proceeds to review them.
He took pictures of Snake-Eyes and Flint with an A. Striker, when suddenly they were attacked by Ripper and Thrasher in the Thunder Machine. The two Dreadnoks had stolen a confidential file and flung aside the empty folder as a taunt. Snake-Eyes leapt onto the machine and struggled with Ripper. Both fell off and in the struggle Ripper pulled off Snake-Eyes's mask before leaping back aboard the machine and fleeing.
As Snake-Eyes rose, he turned his face towards the camera Steve is shocked by what he sees but we do not. He takes the slide out and burns it. Run to Ground Writer: Simon Furman. The Eel emerges from the sewers on a street in London to encounter a gang of punk thugs who try to mug him. He overpowers them all and takes the clothes of one. Flint and Snake-Eyes soon reach the site and realize they are close.
The Eel boards a bus but discovers the clothes don't have any money in them to pay for the fare so he assaults the conductor and jumps off as the bus passes St. James's Park. Snake-Eyes and Flint pursue him through the park but the Eel reaches a branch of Tastee-Burger and goes inside. Snake-Eyes climbs up to the roof to find an observation point but finds a helicopter taking off, piloted by Destro.
Flint reaches the roof to find it empty. Psyche-Out has been sent to the Australian desert to carry out Outback's annual psyche evaluation as the survival expert has refused to return to base, due to tracking down the Dreadnoks. Watching his comrade's sudden explosions of anger, Psyche-Out soon comes to the conclusion that isolation and obsessiveness have driven Outback mad. At Blue Pete's, a bar, petrol station and stopover in the middle of the outback, the proprietor, Pete, meets two regular drinkers, Bry and Dean on a typically quiet day.
Outback and Psyche-Out continue through the desert when Outback hears gunfire and charges off to face the Dreadnoks. Psyche-Out tells him he is crazy but follows anyway. From a ridge they watch Roadpig guarding Pete, Dean and Bry. Psyche-Out and Outback realize the only way to free the hostages is to lead the Dreadnoks away. Outback says he will deal with Roadpig and remove the bonds while Psyche-Out promises to make people mad. Outback sneaks up on Roadpig and smashes an iron bar over his head - but it juts bends and angers Roadpig.
Meanwhile Psyche-Out enters the bar and rapidly assesses the Dreadnoks before insulting them. Outback frees Pete, Dean and Bry and they flee in a car. Monkeywrench suddenly comes flying through the bar window, followed by Psyche-Out and a hail of cans. They set off with the Dreadnoks in pursuit. Zanzibar drops onto the Thunder Machine from the Air Skiff, but Psyche-Out soon overpowers him and throws him overboard. Outback then reveals he has a plan. The Dreadnoks soon find the Thunder Machine has crashed into some boulders. Suddenly a CS gas canister is thrown, overpowering them.
Donning gas masks Outback and Psyche-Out capture the Dreadnoks. Outback explains he carries the gas canisters for dealing with tough foes because "I may be mad, but I'm not stupid. Outback asks him to give a good evaluation report. Psyche-Out replies that he doesn't think Outback is mad. To remind him, Outback pulls a gun and fires at the ground around Psyche-Out's feet and asks "You won't forget, will you? In the Balkans the Destro line has had a castle since the time of the Crusades, ruling from here and selling arms throughout the centuries and regularly shifting alliances with the castle carrying the Swastika and Imperial Eagle emblems in the nineteen thirties and forties, but is now bedecked with Cobra serpent symbols.
Cobra Commander and Destro arrive by helicopter, unaware that Snake-Eyes was clinging to the rear. Snake-Eyes sneaks into a tunnel, silently overpowering a Cobra Trooper, and finding his way to the air vent for the strategy room. Inside the room Cobra Commander, the Baroness and Destro discuss the castle and Cobra's aims, with Cobra Commander explaining that Cobra aims to destroy the existing world order and rebuild it with Cobra succeeding free will and death delivered to all those who oppose.
He announces that tomorrow the Eiffel Tower will be attacked as the first demonstration of Cobra's power. He leaves to organize the campaign. Left alone Destro asks the Baroness if all Cobra members share their leader's ideological passions and she replies that he has their lives and souls to do what he will. Destro is critical as he believes Cobra Commander's vision is destructive and there must always be a choice, whilst power is "no more than a position, a situation of control", not the mystical thing Cobra Commander seems to think it is. Destro explains that he hopes to hone Cobra Commander into an effective weapon and if not he must be disposed of.
Outside several Cobra Troopers spot Snake-Eyes, who guns them down and flees. Cobra Commander orders the Dreadnoks to be sent after him! On a firing range Hawk supervises two trainees as they cope under fire, using shields to dodge shots and shooting their guns. Out of fifteen in the Super Trooper program, only two have made it this far. Hawk details the two trainees; Captain Joe De Niro, age Military specialty: covert operations.
De Niro can quote the manual blindfold and add a few chapters of his own.
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Military specialty: infantry. Hawk notes that Goddard and De Niro have worked together for a long time, with the former saving the latter's life twice in the SAS. The three commanders watch footage of the two trainees successfully fighting against a squad of Cobra troopers unarmed. Hawk further details how De Niro was buried alive for three months and liked it, whilst Goddard is an excellent shot. He then tells Flint he is to be their drill instructor. The next day at Action Force's northern England base Flint puts the two trainees through their paces, first attacking them in surprise. The day continues with several tests.
Goddard pilots a boat across a lake covered in oil with De Niro water skiing and they have to cope when Flint used a flare to set the lake on fire. Then Flint took them to a railway line and handcuffs each one to a rail telling them to escape just as a high speed train comes down the line. The two leap so that their chains are both cut by the train wheels. Next they go to a space test centre and the two are placed in a G-force simulator with no cut-out switch.
That night the two return to their dormitory after further tests, including a 20 mile barefoot run. De Niro tells Goddard not to worry. After just a few hours sleep Flint wakes them. At an air strip Flint explains that air combat is the last stage of training. The two are sent up in a Skystriker to face pilotless Rattler drones. They shoot down several Rattlers but then the Skystriker is hit. They realize they are near a town and cannot eject without costing lives. De Niro tells Goddard it only needs one and tells him to get clear but Goddard argues.
The Skystriker misses the town as one of them parachutes down. Later De Niro storms into Flint's room, angry that Goddard died. Flint explains there can only be one Super Trooper and the final test was always their friendship. He explains that Goddard will always be remembered "as a Super Trooper". De Niro visits Goddard's grave, now wearing the uniform of a Super Trooper. He recalls a quote from the Dao De Ching: Whosoever conquers others has force. Whosoever conquers himself is strong. Whosoever is self-sufficient is rich.
Whosoever does not perish in death lives. Snow Chase Writer: Mike Collins. Snake-Eyes is skiing down a Balkan mountain, escaping from Castle Destro, but pursuing him on motorbikes are Buzzer and Ripper - the Dreadnoks. Buzzer pauses and uses his chainsaw to cut down a tree which he sends down after Snake-Eyes but it has no effect. Then Ripper takes aim with a rifle and hits Snake-Eyes in the elbow. They climb back on their bikes to catch Snake-Eyes before he reaches a nearby village.
Snake-Eyes walks bleeding into the Hotel Alpino and asks to send a telex. He gives the message to the deskman when suddenly the two Dreadnoks burst in, knocking down Snake-Eyes and sawing through the telex machine. Snake-Eyes hits back and runs out, still wounded. Outside he uses a tripwire to knock the two Dreadnoks off their bikes, then he jumps onto Buzzer's bike and uses a pistol to detonate the fuel tank on Ripper's bike. In Action Force's London headquarters Destro is strapped to a chair and subjected to bright lights as part of brainwashing techniques.
Flint is uneasy about doing this but Lady Jaye reminds him that Flint already wounded Destro capturing him. Lady Jaye is angry with Flint for not seeing Destro as "the most ruthless terrorist and gun-runner in the western world" and storms out. Suddenly a flock of Cobra Mambas attack Oxford Street, causing shoppers to flee in terror. Cobra Commander broadcasts his demands - return "our property" or Cobra will continue the attack.
Flint asks if he is being accused of negligence. They are interrupted hen Dial Tone tells them that he has detected a signal coming from Destro. At the Albert Hall a music hall event is interrupted by the Baroness and a squad of Cobra troopers who take the audience hostage. Back at Action Force's headquarters Lifeline tries to remove Destro's helmet but triggers an electric shock defense system.
Flint storms in and attacks Destro, who taunts him that it is too late. In the skies Wild Weasel reports that they have a definitive location for the signal. Cobra Commander decides to lead the assault personally and test his new battle armor. Hawk speaks to the Prime Minister by telephone and then tells Lady Jaye they have orders to instigate Directive Eight - the auto destruct of the base to prevent Cobra getting Destro.
That evening Cobra break through and the two forces fight whilst Hawk initiates the destruct sequence. Meanwhile Flint goes to the interrogation room and attacks Destro, but the latter hits back with his chair. Suddenly an explosion rocks the corridors, coming from the interrogation room. Lady Jaye finds a wounded Flint who explains Destro's helmet contained plastic explosive and he only just managed to get clear.
In the control room Hawk cancels the destruct sequence. Later a couple on the tube pass a wounded homeless man and throw some money in his container. Then Cobra Commander leads his war wounded along the platform as he radios to the Baroness to pull out. Suddenly the homeless man grabs his foot. Cobra Commander sees the man's face and recoils in horror at the deformity. The man responds that he is glad to see Cobra Commander again as he picks up the container - Destro's silver mask!
Terror Tower! Lady Jaye, Airtight, Alpine and Dusty pose as tourists at the top of the Eiffel Tower, trying to find the Cobra agents due to attempt to destroy it according to Snake-Eyes's message. Suddenly a tourist dons the uniform of a Crimson Guard and attacks. The Action Force members don their own battle gear and counterattack. The Guard throws a thermite grenade which Alpine grabs, but goes over the edge of the railings and is pushed down by a female Crimson Guard.
He swings onto the tower's structure and realizes he has about ten seconds to defuse the grenade before it detonates. The other three Joes subdue the two Cobra agents as Alpine succeeds. Later as the male Guard is being led away he boasts that Cobra have more than one operative and operation. Lady Jaye wonders what he means when Trent radios in with the answer - Cobra has bombed Rome as well.
In the Atlantic Ocean off the north west coast of Africa, Falcon leads a team investigating an abandoned W. Lifeline activates the automatic cameras to show the attack: Mainframe sent a distress signal when the W. Cutter was soon overcome and Mainframe tried to destroy the T. The Eels' commander appeared - the Hydro-Viper! The crew of the W. An Eel spotted the security camera and the Hydro-Viper destroyed it. Falcon tells the crew they still have time as the T.
Lifeline points out they are supposed to wait for official orders, but Falcon declares they will take action, explaining that the W. Cobra has a large undersea base. Inside Mainframe is brought into a cell containing Shipwreck, Cutter and Torpedo. Suddenly the four Action Force members attack their guards and overpower them. An alarm goes off and they soon realize the base is under attack. Whilst the other escapees have donned Eel equipment and will join the battle, Mainframe has reached the bridge.
The Eels and Action Force engage in fierce battle whilst inside a Trooper reports several ships directly above the base. Cobra Commander assumes that these are the potential buyers arriving for an auction and gives the order to surface. Mainframe tries to sneak the T. Outside the Hydro-Viper has almost got the better of Falcon and is about to crush him with a rock when the base suddenly rises from the seabed.
In the confusion Falcon grabs the rock and smashes it down on the Hydro-Viper. The base surfaces, only to find it is surrounded by Action Force vessels, led by Hawk aboard a W. He gives the order to attach and the base soon crumbles. Inside Cobra Commander decides to escape with the T. Cobra Commander charges his foe, which uses the T.
Later aboard a W. Mainframe tells a surprised Falcon that Cobra Commander let him live, muttering the usual "you'll pays", but he suspects that the Commander has something bigger in mind Fast Feud! At the Tastee Burgers Bar in St. James's Park a Cobra agent is bemoaning how he ended up as the cleaner for the base front when suddenly he sees Bazooka, Footloose, Shipwreck, Flint and Barbecue charging forward, guns at the ready.
They attack the secret Cobra base and slowly overcome the Crimson Guards stationed there. At the back of the burger bar Storm Shadow realizes the battle is lost and decides that rather than seeing if he can win alone it's better to flee. But bursting through the fire exit are Gung-Ho and Scarlett. Storm Shadow slashes down Gung-Ho and engages in ninja combat with Scarlett when he is suddenly knocked out by Flint. As Storm Shadow is led away Scarlett spots a tattoo on his right forearm and expresses surprise, but declines to tell Flint what it is about.
Flint has been looking for details of Cobra's next operation and found a detailed plan of London's busiest shopping district. A Cobra armored division have captured an oil terminal and it is strongly defended as they aim to restrict the supply of oil to cause sabotage. Falcon assigns Backstop to drive the Persuader spearheading the assault, Cross Country to head the H. Falcon boards the Persuader and the convoy enters a long range battle. At the terminal, two miles away, the commanding Crimson Guardsman is dismissive of the attack when he learns there are only ten units.
Falcon is also privately unsure but notes that the real assault is elsewhere. In the battlefield Roadblock and Cross-Country note how the Maggot guns are getting accurate and realize there is a laser target designator guiding them. Falcon uses the Persuader's main gun to destroy some Maggots to give Tunnel Rat's team more time. Inside the pipeline Tunnel Rat hears a noise and realizes it isn't an explosion but oil! A Rattler flies toward the Action Force convoy and Falcon orders the Maulers to get out of the approach.
One is destroyed but a H. Meanwhile Tunnel Rat's team emerge from the pipeline and sneak through the terminal. Inside a tower a squad of Techo-Vipers are preparing explosives to ignite the entire oil field and cripple the Gulf. Suddenly Tunnel Rat's team enter and capture the Techno-Vipers, but the latter say the timers on the explosives cannot be cancelled as they are computer controlled. Mainframe attempts the task. The Crimson Guardsman is informed that contact with the demolitions team has been lost, so he orders two Maggots to investigate.
They reach the tower where Fast Draw is waiting. He destroys them both with his backpack mounted missiles. Inside the tower Mainframe tells the others he has nearly done the task but the final stage with either deactivate or detonate the explosives. Tunnel Rat tells him to go ahead and Mainframe is successful. Outside the Crimson Guardsman orders a retreat and the destruction of as much of the terminal as possible, but the Persuader destroys his Maggot.
All of the Action Force team converge inside the terminal to report mission accomplished as air support arrives. The Mission! Letterer: Stuart Bartlett. Snake-Eyes has been sent on a mission by Flint. He is dropped from plane to land on an uninhabited island off Sweden where he must obtain photographic evidence of a covert Cobra laser research facility. He is seen as he lands but overpowers the two Vipers who investigate. He makes his way across the island and discovers the laser which he photographs.
His orders give him clearance to destroy it if possible, though such a move will make his escape near impossible. He removes his grenade belt when suddenly he is found by a group of Vipers. They demand his camera but he grabs his sword and slices through their guns. As more come he boards a Rattler. The newly arrived Vipers aim their guns when suddenly the grenades detonate nearby fuel drums. Snake-Eyes sets the controls for the Rattler to smash into the laser, creating an explosion that destroys both. He swims away from the island to be collected by Flint in a submarine.
Comics lot contains: G. Joe: European Missions Issues Marvel Comics Ltd. Beautiful Set!! Please See Scans!! A must have for any serious G. Highly Recommended!! Please read return policy. With its forerunner, the Badge of Military Merit, which took the form of a heart made of purple cloth, the Purple Heart is the oldest military award still given to U. From then on as its legend grew; so did its appearance. Although never abolished, the award of the badge was not proposed again officially until after World War I. The bill was withdrawn and action on the case ceased January 3, ; but the office of the Adjutant General was instructed to file all materials collected for possible future use.
A number of private interests sought to have the medal re-instituted in the Army, this included the board of directors of the Fort Ticonderoga Museum in Ticonderoga, New York. Elizabeth Will, an Army heraldic specialist in the Office of the Quartermaster General, was named to redesign the newly revived medal, which became known as the Purple Heart.
Using general specifications provided to her, Will created the design sketch for the present medal of the Purple Heart. The new design was issued on the bicentennial of George Washington's birth. Her obituary, in the February 8, edition of The Washington Post newspaper, reflects her many contributions to military heraldry. The Commission of Fine Arts solicited plaster models from three leading sculptors for the medal, selecting that of John R. Sinnock of the Philadelphia Mint in May The criteria were announced in a War Department circular dated February 22, , and authorized award to soldiers, upon their request, who had been awarded the Meritorious Service Citation Certificate, Army Wound Ribbon, or were authorized to wear Wound Chevrons subsequent to April 5, , the day before the United States entered World War I.
The first Purple Heart was awarded to MacArthur. During the early period of American involvement in World War II December 7, — September 22, , the Purple Heart was awarded both for wounds received in action against the enemy and for meritorious performance of duty. With the establishment of the Legion of Merit, by an Act of Congress, the practice of awarding the Purple Heart for meritorious service was discontinued.
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By Executive Order , dated December 3, , the decoration was applied to all services; the order required reasonable uniform application of the regulations for each of the Services. This executive order also authorized the award only for wounds received. For both military and civilian personnel during the World War II era, to meet eligibility for the Purple Heart, AR , dated September 22, , and May 3, , required identification of circumstances. Subject to approval of the Secretary of Defense, Executive Order , dated February 12, , revised authorizations to include the Service Secretaries.
Dated April 25, , Executive Order , included provisions for posthumous award of the Purple Heart. Dated February 23, , Executive Order , authorized award of the Purple Heart as a result of terrorist attacks, or while serving as part of a peacekeeping force, subsequent to March 28, On June 13, , the Senate approved an amendment to the Defense Authorization Bill, which changed the precedence of the Purple Heart award, from immediately above the Good Conduct Medal to immediately above the Meritorious Service Medals.
Public Law authorized the award for wounds received as a result of friendly fire. Public Law expanded the eligibility date, authorizing award of the Purple Heart to a former prisoner of war who was wounded before April 25, The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year Public Law changed the criteria to delete authorization for award of the Purple Heart to any civilian national of the United States, while serving under competent authority in any capacity with the Armed Forces.
This change was effective May 18, During World War II, nearly , Purple Heart medals were manufactured in anticipation of the estimated casualties resulting from the planned Allied invasion of Japan. To the present date, total combined American military casualties of the sixty-five years following the end of World War II—including the Korean and Vietnam Wars—have not exceeded that number. In , there remained , Purple Heart medals in stock. The existing surplus allowed combat units in Iraq and Afghanistan to keep Purple Hearts on-hand for immediate award to soldiers wounded in the field.
The "History" section of the November edition of National Geographic estimated the number of purple hearts given. Above the estimates, the text reads, "Any tally of Purple Hearts is an estimate. Awards are often given during conflict; records aren't always exact" page Armed Services after April 5, , has been wounded or killed. Specific examples of services which warrant the Purple Heart include any action against an enemy of the United States; any action with an opposing armed force of a foreign country in which the Armed Forces of the United States are or have been engaged; while serving with friendly foreign forces engaged in an armed conflict against an opposing armed force in which the United States is not a belligerent party; as a result of an act of any such enemy of opposing armed forces; or as the result of an act of any hostile foreign force.
After 28 March , as a result of an international terrorist attack against the United States or a foreign nation friendly to the United States, recognized as such an attack by the Secretary of the Army, or jointly by the Secretaries of the separate armed services concerned if persons from more than one service are wounded in the attack.
After 28 March , as a result of military operations while serving outside the territory of the United States as part of a peacekeeping force. The Purple Heart differs from all other decorations in that an individual is not "recommended" for the decoration; rather he or she is entitled to it upon meeting specific criteria. A Purple Heart is awarded for the first wound suffered under conditions indicated above, but for each subsequent award an oak leaf cluster is worn in lieu of the medal.
Not more than one award will be made for more than one wound or injury received at the same instant. A "wound" is defined as an injury to any part of the body from an outside force or agent sustained under one or more of the conditions listed above. A physical lesion is not required; however, the wound for which the award is made must have required treatment by a medical officer and records of medical treatment for wounds or injuries received in action must have been made a matter of official record.
When contemplating an award of this decoration, the key issue that commanders must take into consideration is the degree to which the enemy caused the injury. The fact that the proposed recipient was participating in direct or indirect combat operations is a necessary prerequisite, but is not sole justification for award. The Purple Heart is not awarded for non-combat injuries.
Enemy-related injuries which justify the award of the Purple Heart include: injury caused by enemy bullet, shrapnel, or other projectile created by enemy action; injury caused by enemy placed land mine, naval mine, or trap; injury caused by enemy released chemical, biological, or nuclear agent; injury caused by vehicle or aircraft accident resulting from enemy fire; and, concussion injuries caused as a result of enemy generated explosions. Injuries or wounds which do not qualify for award of the Purple Heart include frostbite or trench foot injuries; heat stroke; food poisoning not caused by enemy agents; chemical, biological, or nuclear agents not released by the enemy; battle fatigue; disease not directly caused by enemy agents; accidents, to include explosive, aircraft, vehicular, and other accidental wounding not related to or caused by enemy action; self-inflicted wounds e.
It is not intended that such a strict interpretation of the requirement for the wound or injury to be caused by direct result of hostile action be taken that it would preclude the award being made to deserving personnel. Commanders must also take into consideration the circumstances surrounding an injury, even if it appears to meet the criteria.
In the case of an individual injured while making a parachute landing from an aircraft that had been brought down by enemy fire; or, an individual injured as a result of a vehicle accident caused by enemy fire, the decision will be made in favor of the individual and the award will be made. As well, individuals wounded or killed as a result of "friendly fire" in the "heat of battle" will be awarded the Purple Heart as long as the "friendly" projectile or agent was released with the full intent of inflicting damage or destroying enemy troops or equipment.
Individuals injured as a result of their own negligence, such as by driving or walking through an unauthorized area known to have been mined or placed off limits or searching for or picking up unexploded munitions as war souvenirs, will not be awarded the Purple Heart as they clearly were not injured as a result of enemy action, but rather by their own negligence. From to , civilians serving or closely affiliated with, the armed forces—as government employees, Red Cross workers, war correspondents, and the like—were eligible to receive the Purple Heart.
Among the earliest civilians to receive the award were nine firefighters of the Honolulu Fire Department, killed or wounded, while fighting fires at Hickam Field during the attack on Pearl Harbor. About men and women received the award, the most famous being newspaperman Ernie Pyle, who was awarded a Purple Heart posthumously, by the Army, after being killed by Japanese machine gun fire in the Pacific Theater, near the end of World War II.
Before his death, Pyle had seen and experienced combat in the European Theater, while accompanying, and writing about, infantrymen, for the folks back home. The most recent Purple Hearts presented to civilians occurred after the terrorist attacks at Khobar Towers, Saudi Arabia, in —for their injuries, about 40 U. However, in , at the urging of the Military Order of the Purple Heart, Congress passed legislation prohibiting future awards of the Purple Heart to civilians.
Today, the Purple Heart is reserved for men and women in uniform. Civilian employees of the U. Department of Defense who are killed or wounded as a result of hostile action may receive the new Defense of Freedom Medal. This award was created shortly after the terrorist attacks of September 11, Above the heart appears a shield of the coat of arms of George Washington a white shield with two red bars and three red stars in chief between sprays of green leaves. Presentation Current active duty personnel are awarded the Purple Heart upon recommendation from their chain of command, stating the injury that was received and the action in which the service member was wounded.
While the award of the Purple Heart is considered automatic for all wounds received in combat, each award presentation must still be reviewed to ensure that the wounds received were as a result of enemy action. Modern day Purple Heart presentations are recorded in both hardcopy and electronic service records. The annotation of the Purple Heart is denoted both with the service member's parent command and at the headquarters of the military service department. An original citation and award certificate are presented to the service member and filed in the field service record.
In addition, during mass demobilizations following each of America's major wars of the 20th century, it was common occurrence to omit mention from service records of a Purple Heart award. This occurred due to clerical errors, and became problematic once a service record was closed upon discharge.
In terms of keeping accurate records, it was commonplace for some field commanders to engage in bedside presentations of the Purple Heart. This typically entailed a general entering a hospital with a box of Purple Hearts, pinning them on the pillows of wounded service members, then departing with no official records kept of the visit, or the award of the Purple Heart.
Service members, themselves, complicated matters by unofficially leaving hospitals, hastily returning to their units to rejoin battle so as to not appear a malingerer. In such cases, even if a service member had received actual wounds in combat, both the award of the Purple Heart, as well as the entire visit to the hospital, was unrecorded in official records.
Service members requesting retroactive awards of the Purple Heart must normally apply through the National Personnel Records Center. Following a review of service records, qualified Army members are awarded the Purple Heart by the U. Requests Because the Purple Heart did not exist prior to , decoration records are not annotated in the service histories of veterans wounded, or killed, by enemy action, prior to establishment of the medal. The Purple Heart is, however, retroactive to meaning it may be presented to veterans as far back as First World War.
Prior to , service departments would review all available records, including older service records, and service histories, to determine if a veteran warranted a retroactive Purple Heart. As of , such records are listed as "Archival", by the National Archives and Records Administration, meaning they have been transferred from the custody of the military, and can no longer be loaned and transferred for retroactive medals determination.
In such cases, requestors asking for a Purple Heart especially from records of the First World War are provided with a complete copy of all available records or reconstructed records in the case of the fire and advised the Purple Heart may be privately purchased if the requestor feels it is warranted. A clause to the archival procedures was revised in mid, where if a veteran, themselves or if deceased , an immediate member of the family, requested the Purple Heart, on an Army or Air Force record, the medal could still be granted by the National Archives.
In such cases, where a determination was required made by the military service department, photocopies of the archival record, but not the record itself , would be forwarded to the headquarters of the military branch in question. This stipulation was granted only for the Air Force and Army; Marine Corps, Navy, and Coast Guard archival medals requests are still typically only offered a copy of the file and told to purchase the medal privately.
For requests directly received from veterans, these are routed through a Navy Liaison Office, on site at Page Avenue, St. Due to the National Archives Fire, a large number of retroactive Purple Heart requests are difficult to verify because all records to substantiate the award may have been destroyed. As a solution to deal with Purple Heart requests, where service records were destroyed in the fire, the National Personnel Records Center maintains a separate office. If a Purple Heart is warranted, all available alternate records sources are forwarded to the military service department for final determination of issuance.
The loaning of fire related records to the military has declined since , because a large number of such records now fall into the "archival records" category of military service records. This means the records were transferred from the military to the National Archives, and in such cases, the Purple Heart may be privately purchased by the requestor see above section of retroactive requests for further details but is no longer provided by the military service department.
Herbert Burke, U. Representative from FloridaLlewellyn Chilson, U. S Navy Robert Leckie U.
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Polich, Sr. Charles P. Roland, American historian Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. Pat Tillman, football player Gilbert R. Marine Sgt. Albert L. George died from injuries sustained when he saved a group of five children from being mauled by two pit bull terriers in New Zealand.
This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam—supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies—and the government of South Vietnam—supported by the United States and other anti-communist allies. The Viet Cong also known as the National Liberation Front, or NLF , a lightly armed South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region.
The People's Army of Vietnam aka the North Vietnamese Army engaged in a more conventional war, at times committing large units into battle. In the course of the war, the U. The U. This was part of a wider containment strategy, with the stated aim of stopping the spread of communism. According to the U. The North Vietnamese government and the Viet Cong were fighting to reunify Vietnam under communist rule. They viewed the conflict as a colonial war, fought initially against forces from France and then America, as France was backed by the U. Beginning in , American military advisors arrived in what was then French Indochina.
Regular U. Operations crossed international borders: bordering areas of Laos and Cambodia were heavily bombed by U. The Tet Offensive failed in its goal of overthrowing the South Vietnamese government but became the turning point in the war, as it persuaded a large segment of the United States population that its government's claims of progress toward winning the war were illusory despite many years of massive U. Disillusionment with the war by the U. Despite the Paris Peace Accord, which was signed by all parties in January , the fighting continued.
In the U. This movement was part of a larger Counterculture of the s which fed into it. Direct U. The capture of Saigon at the hands of the North Vietnamese Army in April marked the end of the war, and North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities see Vietnam War casualties. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese service members and civilians killed vary from , to 3.
Some ,—, Cambodians, 20,—, Laotians, and 58, U. Names for the war Further information: Terminology of the Vietnam WarVarious names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most commonly used name in English. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. Resistance War Against America.
It is also called Chi? The Treaty of Hu? In spite of military resistance, most notably by the C? Various Vietnamese opposition movements to French rule existed during this period, such as the Vi? The French colonial authorities, in French Indochina, sided with the Vichy regime.
In September , Japan invaded Indochina. Following the cessation of fighting and the beginning of the Japanese occupation, the French colonial authorities collaborated with the Japanese. The French continued to run affairs in Indochina, but ultimate power resided in the hands of the Japanese. The Viet Minh was founded as a league for independence from France, but also opposed Japanese occupation in for the same reason. However, they did not have enough power to fight actual battles at first.
Double occupation by France and Japan continued until the German forces were expelled from France and the French Indochina colonial authorities started holding secret talks with the Free French. Fearing that they could no longer trust the French authorities, the Japanese army interned the French authorities and troops on 9 March and created the puppet Empire of Vietnam state, under B?
Between , and 2 million people died of starvation out of a population of 10 million in the affected area. Exploiting the administrative gap that the internment of the French had created, the Viet Minh in March urged the population to ransack rice warehouses and refuse to pay their taxes.
Between 75 and warehouses were consequently raided. This rebellion against the effects of the famine and the authorities that were partially responsible for it bolstered the Viet Minh's popularity and they recruited many members during this period. Swift Jr. The Japanese forces informally surrendered the official surrender took place on 2 September in Tokyo Bay but being the only force capable of maintaining law and order the Japanese Imperial Army remained in power while keeping French colonial troops and Sainteny detained.
During August the Japanese forces remained inactive as the Viet Minh and other nationalist groups took over public buildings and weapons, which began the August Revolution. In an overture to the Americans, he began his speech by paraphrasing the United States Declaration of Independence: "All men are created equal. The Creator has given us certain inviolable Rights: the right to Life, the right to be Free, and the right to achieve Happiness.
Dommen cautions against a "romanticized view" of their success: "The Viet Minh use of terror was systematic The Viet Minh had recruited more than Japanese soldiers and given them roles to train or command Vietnamese soldiers. As the French did not have the means to immediately retake Vietnam, the major powers came to an agreement that British troops would occupy the south while Nationalist Chinese forces would move in from the north.
Nationalist Chinese troops entered the country to disarm Japanese troops north of the 16th parallel on 14 September When the British landed in the south, they rearmed the interned French forces as well as parts of the surrendered Japanese forces to aid them in retaking southern Vietnam, as they did not have enough troops to do this themselves. On the urging of the Soviet Union, Ho Chi Minh initially attempted to negotiate with the French, who were slowly re-establishing their control across the area.
In January , the Viet Minh won elections across central and northern Vietnam. On 6 March , Ho signed an agreement allowing French forces to replace Nationalist Chinese forces, in exchange for French recognition of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam as a "free" republic within the French Union, with the specifics of such recognition to be determined by future negotiation. British forces departed on 26 March , leaving Vietnam in the hands of the French. Globally, the Cold War began in earnest, which meant that the rapprochement that existed between the Western powers and the Soviet Union during World War II disintegrated.
The Viet Minh fight was hampered by a lack of weapons; this situation changed by when the Chinese Communists had largely won the Chinese Civil War and were free to provide arms to their Vietnamese allies. The outbreak of the Korean War in June convinced many Washington policymakers that the war in Indochina was an example of communist expansionism directed by the Soviet Union. PRC weapons, expertise, and laborers transformed the Viet Minh from a guerrilla force into a regular army. There were also talks between the French and Americans in which the possible use of three tactical nuclear weapons was considered, though reports of how seriously this was considered and by whom are even now vague and contradictory.
One version of the plan for the proposed Operation Vulture envisioned sending 60 Bs from U. The plan included an option to use up to three atomic weapons on the Viet Minh positions. Admiral Arthur W. Radford, Chairman of the U. Joint Chiefs of Staff, gave this nuclear option his backing. Bs, Bs, and Bs could have executed a nuclear strike, as could carrier aircraft from the Seventh Fleet. According to U. Vice-President Richard Nixon, the plan involved the Joint Chiefs of Staff drawing up plans to use three small tactical nuclear weapons in support of the French.
Nixon, a so-called "hawk" on Vietnam, suggested that the United States might have to "put American boys in". President Dwight D. Eisenhower made American participation contingent on British support, but they were opposed to such a venture. In the end, convinced that the political risks outweighed the possible benefits, Eisenhower decided against the intervention. Eisenhower was a five-star general.
He was wary of getting the United States involved in a land war in Asia. Throughout the conflict, U. Giap's Viet Minh forces handed the French a stunning military defeat, and on 7 May , the French Union garrison surrendered. Of the 12, French prisoners taken by the Viet Minh, only 3, survived. Elections throughout the country were to be held in to establish a unified government. Around one million northerners, mainly minority Catholics, fled south, fearing persecution by the communists following an American propaganda campaign using slogans such as "The Virgin Mary is heading south", and aided by a U.
As many as two million more would have left had they not been stopped by the Viet Minh. In addition to the Catholics flowing south, up to , "Revolutionary Regroupees" went to the north for "regroupment", expecting to return to the south within two years. The Viet Minh left roughly 5, to 10, cadres in the south as a "politico-military substructure within the object of its irredentism.
Around 52, Vietnamese civilians moved from south to north. Between and , the North Vietnamese government instituted various agrarian reforms, including "rent reduction" and "land reform". This was a campaign against land owners. Declassified Politburo documents confirm that 1 in 1, North Vietnamese i.
Landlords were arbitrarily estimated as 5. Official records from the time suggest that , people were executed as "landlords" during the "land reform", of whom , A wide range of estimates were previously suggested by independent sources. In , leaders in Hanoi admitted to "excesses" in implementing this program and restored a large amount of the land to the original owners.
The south, meanwhile, constituted the State of Vietnam, with B? With respect to the question of reunification, the non-communist Vietnamese delegation objected strenuously to any division of Vietnam, but lost out when the French accepted the proposal of Viet Minh delegate Ph? It provided for unification elections under the supervision of the United Nations, but was rejected by the Soviet delegation. The United States was willing to accept a reunified, communist-led Vietnam if it resulted from free and fair elections: "With respect to the statement made by the representative of the State of Vietnam, the United States reiterates its traditional position that peoples are entitled to determine their own future and that it will not join in any arrangement which would hinder this".
President Eisenhower wrote in that "I have never talked or corresponded with a person knowledgeable in Indochinese affairs who did not agree that had elections been held as of the time of the fighting, possibly eighty percent of the population would have voted for the Communist Ho Chi Minh as their leader rather than Chief of State B?
Indeed, the lack of leadership and drive on the part of B? As broad-based opposition to his harsh tactics mounted, Di? In a referendum on the future of the State of Vietnam on 23 October , Di? His American advisors had recommended a more modest winning margin of "60 to 70 percent. Three days later, he declared South Vietnam to be an independent state under the name Republic of Vietnam ROV , with himself as president. The domino theory, which argued that if one country fell to communism, then all of the surrounding countries would follow, was first proposed as policy by the Eisenhower administration.
John F. Kennedy, then a U. Historian Luu Doan Huynh notes that "Di? Beginning in the summer of , Di? He instituted the death penalty against any activity deemed communist in August According to Gabriel Kolko about 12, suspected opponents of Di? However, Guenter Lewy argues that such figures were exaggerated and that there were never more than 35, prisoners of all kinds in the whole country.
In May , Di? President Eisenhower pledged his continued support, and a parade was held in Di? Although Di? They knew little of the language or long history of the country. There was a tendency to assign American motives to Vietnamese actions, and Di? Insurgency in the South, —60Main articles: Viet Cong and War in Vietnam —63 Between and there was large scale random dissidence in the countryside which the Di? In early South Vietnam had its first peace in over a decade. However, by mid through incidents of violence increased but the government "did not construe it as a campaign, considering the disorders too diffuse to warrant committing major GVN resources.
There had been some division among former Viet Minh whose main goal was to hold the elections promised in the Geneva Accords, leading to "wildcat" activities separate from the other communists and anti-GVN activists. According to the Pentagon Papers, the Viet Cong "placed heavy emphasis on the withdrawal of American advisors and influence, on land reform and liberalization of the GVN, on coalition government and the neutralization of Vietnam.
The reason for the continued survival of the NLF was the class relations in the countryside. The vast majority of the population lived in villages in the countryside where the key issue was land reform. The Viet Minh had reduced rents and debts; and had leased communal lands, mostly to the poorer peasants.